TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement Chapter One – The Problem and Its Scope Introduction 2 Statement of the Problem 4 Review of Related Literature 5 Significance of the Study 7 Scope and Limitation 9 Definition of Terms 10 Organization of the Study 12 Chapter Two – Research Design and Methodology Research Method 14 Research Instrument 14 Research Environment 14 Research Subject 15 Research Procedure 16 Statistical Treatment of the Data 17 Chapter Three – Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data 18 Chapter Four – Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations Summary 43 Conclusion 45 Recommendations 47 Bibliography 50
Appendices Appendix A – Letters Appendix B – Sample Questionnaires Appendix C – Pictures Appendix D – Respondent’s Directory Introduction Marriage, a legally recognized relationship, established by a civil or religious ceremony, between two people who intend to live together as sexual and domestic partners. The joining together in wedlock of two people, something which supposed to be and should be considered sacred as well as wonderful. It is a in which commitment two people are bound to one another and are obligated to promise to one another that they love, care and be loyal to each other through all times.
A beautiful thing…yet sadly some people do it out of what benefits they might receive from it, may it be money, fame or any other superficial thing in this world. But there are times that these people do it out of need. This brings us to talk about interracial marriages. Interracial marriages, though in the past had been considered taboo, aren’t rare sites anymore, may it be in the Philippines or other parts of the world. However, just because now it isn’t forbidden by the law (as there was a time when there was a law made against it), it doesn’t mean that all of us give the go signal.
Interracial marriages will most likely create various outcomes. These effects will not only affect the family members and friends of the spouses, they can also affect other individuals of the community. They could even affect the whole society especially now these days where there are studies which show that there has been a rise in the percentage of these marriages. These Filipinos went into these marriages for different reasons, they could have done it for love or for the benefits that come with the spouse.
Now, the reason the researchers have selected to do this study is for them to learn what people really think about these marriages and what effects it could possibly bring about the Philippine Society. Hopefully this study will be able to help the Filipino people understand these interracial couples better and to prepare the Filipino people for what changes may be stimulated by these marriages, may they be good or bad. Statement of the Problem The researchers aim to find out what people think about interracial marriages and what possible effects these marriages could induce to the Philippine society.
They also aim to get the Filipino people ready for what alterations interracial marriages could create. While making the study, the researchers hope to answer the following questions: o Are interracial marriages still found unusual? o What are the factors that lead to interracial marriages? o How will these marriages affect the Philippine Society? Review of Related Literature In the Chronicle Online, there is an article there entitled “Interracial Relationships Are On The Increase In U. S. But Decline With Age, Cornell Study Finds” which talks about the increase in number of marriages between different kinds of races through the years. It also has findings that these relationships decline with age because the youngest age bracket ranked the highest among these relationships and the middle age bracket ranked second while the oldest age bracket ranked last. Despite the fact that these findings were based in the U. S. , it somehow gives the researchers an idea of how relationships between different races affected another country. From this article, they could already come up with a possible outcome.
In a 2003 study, once again based in the United States, by Kara Joyner (assistant professor of policy analysis and management at Cornell and co-author of a study on interracial relationships in a recent issue of the American Sociological Review) it was reported that adolescents in romances with another race were significantly less willing to reveal their relationship to family and close friends than those in same-race relationships, suggesting that such relationships still do not receive whole-hearted approval by society. The researchers could try to compare these findings to the results they are about to come across and see the difference.
In an article in The Freeman Magazine of October 2002 tells about a relationship of one Leyte-born Filipina, Theresa Mason nee Estafia, to British national, Chris Mason, which ended in marriage. This is proof that happy endings between two lovers of different races aren’t impossible. The book, Chinese American Intermarriage, is also a study based on the Chinese American experiences in New York City, focuses on the increase of these relationships, the attraction and the obstacles, of which the most significant is still family objection.
This book and the rest of these articles may be helpful to the researchers later on in the study especially when analyzing and interpreting the data. Significance of the Study Interracial relationships, marriages to be specific, aren’t as rare as they used to be in the Philippines. The researchers have arranged this study in order to find out what the Filipino people’s opinion on these kinds of marriages are since these marriages were once considered somehow taboo, and how Filipino people think these kinds of marriages could affect the Philippine society.
The researchers hope that by making this study, they could help the following: o People who plan to have an interracial marriage– They would know what effects they are most probably going to bring about to the Philippine Society and see if they are making the right decision marrying these foreigners. o Couples (interracial) – They will know what effects they are bringing about to the Philippine Society. They will also get an insight of what the Filipino people take their (the interracial couple’s) marriages for. Foreigners (with Filipino partners) – They will get an insight of what they are getting themselves into or have gotten themselves into. It will also help them speculate on their relationship, if it really is based on love or money. o Country – It will be prepared for the disadvantages these marriages could bring about and know how to handle these possible drawbacks. Scope and Limitation The researchers are to survey 100 selected residents of Cebu for their term paper.
The respondents play a vital role in the making of this term paper because their answers would serve as the key to unfolding this study. The term paper will deal with the opinions of selected Cebu Residents on interracial marriages between a Filipino citizen and a foreigner, and its effects to the Philippine Society. The researchers are given four weeks, more or less, to make this requirement. In creating the term paper, the researchers have allotted an amount of 400 pesos for purpose such as photo copying and other possible needs.
The researchers also need to have sources such as the internet, books, newspapers, encyclopedia or any other articles that would be able to help them gain more knowledge on interracial marriages and its possible effects to the Philippine Society by doing so, helping them come up with an effective study. Definition of Terms Benefits – money, to move out of the country, escaping a life of hardship/poverty Cebu residents – any Filipino who currently lives in the province of Cebu Effects – changes which can possibly be done
Filipino citizen/person – an individual who was born to Filipino parents and raised in the Philippines Foreigner – a person who was born to natives of countries other than the Philippines and raised in a country other than the Philippines Go Signal – approval Induce – bring about Interracial – between a Filipino and a foreigner Interracial Couples – a couple composed of a Filipino and a foreigner Interracial Marriage – a marriage of a Filipino Citizen to a foreigner Marriage – a legal union of two people through a ceremony called a wedding Partner – spouse/lover
Philippine Society – the people of the Philippines Respondents – the people selected to answer the survey Taboo – forbidden The Researchers – the people who have conducted the study (namely: Trysha Bautista, Kimberly Bouffard, Sherry Corominas, Eileen Cueno and Miles Semblante) Organization of the Study This term paper consists of four chapters. Each chapter contains contents which are vital to the researchers in order to help future readers understand the researchers study further.
The first chapter is the Problem and Its Scope; it contains the introduction, which more or less is a general summary of what the term paper is all about, the statement of the problem shows the aim or objective of the study through general statement questions, and the review of related literature is information/research about previous studies or projects made which are related to the study the researchers have made. The significance of the study states why the study is important, and to whom the study is important to.
In the scope and limitation, future readers will know what grounds the researchers can cover and what their certain restrictions are. The definition of terms will help future readers understand the terms the researchers have used in their study and how these words are used. Chapter two, the Research Design and Methodology, consists of the research methods, research instrument, and statistical treatment of the data. The research methods describe how the researchers gathered their data to come up with their output.
The research instrument tackles about the materials/instruments used to complete the study. The statistical treatment of data covers the numerical information in the study. The third chapter, the Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of data, like the title itself, is just the researchers’ presentation, interpretation and analysis of their data. Chapter four is the Summary, Conclusion and Interpretation; it consists of the summary which is a sum-up and a review of the whole study, the conclusion which is the closing statement and the recommendation.
Research Method For the study on interracial marriages and its effects to the Philippine society, the researchers used a survey type in order to gain more knowledge on the said topic. With the use of questionnaires, the researchers are to learn more about what the residents of Cebu think about interracial marriages and how these marriages could affect the Philippine society. Research Instruments The main instrument that the researchers utilized for the purpose of this study was the questionnaire made up of 8 questions.
Computers, internet access, encyclopedias, books and some periodicals were also necessary in the making of this term paper. Research Environment The researchers made questionnaires which were distributed to selected Cebu residents living in these following areas: Tisa, Banilad, Banawa and Talisay. The researchers chose those areas because those areas of Cebu are most convenient for them, given that they live in the said areas and that the researchers believed that the residents in these areas would readily share their opinions on the topic and that they are exposed to these kinds of relationships.
The other half of respondents were randomly selected in Ayala Center Cebu because they had an idea that most foreigners were to be found there and they also wanted to know what regular people thought of their topic. Research Subject The researchers asked various respondents to answer the questionnaires they made for their survey. They selected people who they supposed were exposed to interracial marriages or any kind of interracial relationships because they believe these people could give them the knowledge they require in order for their study to be a success.
They also chose ordinary people at the mall because they wanted to get what regular people thought of the topic. They opted to let foreigners answer their questionnaires as well, as to see what these outsiders think about marriages of one of their kind to a Filipino. Research Procedure The researchers had brainstormed on possible topics that they might have for their term paper. They proposed their topics to their Social Studies III teacher and then she approved of the topic on interracial marriages and its effects to the society.
After which, they studied on whatever they could on the said topic which would help them formulate questions for their questionnaire. Once they have completed the creation of their questionnaire, they distributed 100 copies to various respondents and then collected them when they were completely answered. Then they recorded the data they gathered, made a graph out of it, interpreted and analyzed it, and made a conclusion out of it. Statistical Treatment of Data The study needs to be studied with complete accuracy so that their data may be analyzed and interpreted correctly.
In order to accomplish that, they used this formula: %= f/n * 100% f=frequency n=number of respondents/answers Question #1: Do you find it unusual seeing a Filipino together with a foreigner? Table #1 Respondents Opinion on Filipinos Being Together with Foreigners N= 100 |Response |Frequency |Percentage | |Yes |25 |25% |No |75 |75% | | | |Total 100% | Graph #1 [pic] Interpretation The table and graph above shows that 75 out of 100 or 75% of the respondents do not find it unusual seeing a Filipino together with a foreigner. On the other hand, 25 out of 100 or 25% of the respondents do find it unusual.
Analysis The results show that interracial relationships aren’t considered to be as scarce as they used to be in the past. Therefore, it is somewhat safe to say that interracial marriages aren’t considered as uncommon as well. It also goes to show that these days the Filipino people are exploring other cultures and they aren’t scared of criticism since one would easily spot an interracial couple in a public place, such as malls. Question #2: Why do you think they prefer to marry foreigners over fellow countrymen? Table #2
Respondents’ Opinion as to Why Some Filipinos Prefer to Marry Foreigners over Fellow Filipinos N= 141 |Response |Frequency |Percentage | |Because foreigners can provide a life of |65 |46% | |luxury for these Filipinos | | | |Because they want to move out of the |33 23% | |country | | | |They just happen to love them |21 |15% | |Because of Physical appearance |12 |9% | |Other |10 |7% | | | |Total 100% | Graph #2 [pic] Interpretation The figures above show that 46% think that some Filipinos choose to marry foreigners over fellow Filipinos because believe that these foreigners can provide them with a life of luxury. 23% assume that they do it because they want to move out of the country. There are 15% who feel that these Filipinos just happen to love their foreign partners.
There are also 9% who think that these Filipinos chose foreigners over Filipinos because of physical appearance. The last 7% have other reasons. Analysis Life and luxury takes the highest position to why people prefer to marry foreigners over fellow countrymen. This is maybe because of the situation the country is in now. It has also been found out from the research and gathered data that ‘wants’ are big priorities with this issue. In this survey, of the gathered data above, these marriages work out well because the couple can find beneficial things and they can adjust to the situation. Question #3: What do you think are the most probable reason for their marriages? Table #3 Respondents’ Opinion for the Most Probable Reason for Their Marriages N= 175 Response |Frequency |Percentage | |Love |20 |11% | |Money |39 |22% | |Convenience (to live in a good house, live |58 |24% | |a life of luxury) | | | |To get out of the country |30 |17% | |To have beautiful offspring |14 |8% | |Others |14 |8% | | | |Total 100% | Graph #3 [pic] Interpretation The data shows that 11% percent of them think that the reason is because of love. There 22% of them think that it is because of money. 24% is because of the convenience to live in a good house and to have a life of luxury.
There are 17% of them who thinks that it is because that the Filipinos could have the chance to get out of the country. There are also 8% of them who thinks that it is because they could have a beautiful offspring. The last 8% have other reasons. Analysis In the data the highest percentage is that of the convenience to live in a good house and to have a life of luxury. The second highest rate of percentage is money. With these two having the highest tallies, it makes a speculation as to what these marriages are really about, because it seems to be based more on money than on love. Question #4: What do you think are the Factors That Make Interracial Marriages Difficult? Table #4 Respondents’ Opinion on What Make Interracial Marriages Difficult N= 118 Response |Frequency |Percentage | |Money |22 |19% | |Cultural Differences |75 |63% | |Location of residence |19 |16% | |Others |2 |2% | | | |Total 100% | Graph #4 [pic]
Interpretation The data shows that there are 19% of them who think that it is because of money. 63% thinks that it is because of the cultural differences. 16% of the data shows that it is because of the location of residents. The last 2% percent have their own personal reasons. Analysis In the data the highest percentage is because of cultural differences. This shows that no matter how much you love each other, there will always be problems, and the problems that occur between these couples are cause by the fact that they were brought up in two different worlds. Question #5: What do you think the foreigners find in their Filipino partners? Table #5 Response |Frequency |Percentage | |Love |32 |27% | |Companionship |78 |67% | |Others |7 |6% | | | |Total 100% | Graph #5 [pic] Interpretation
The data shows that majority, 67% of our respondents think that it’s companionship that foreigners find in their Filipino partners, 27% thinks that it’s love, and the remaining 6%, on others. Analysis The data goes to show that majority think that these foreigners find companionship in their Filipino partners. And given the fact that Filipinos are very hospitable people, it really doesn’t seem such a surprise why they would choose Filipinos for companionship. Question #6: Do you think interracial marriages work out well? Table #6 Respondents’ Opinion on Whether or Not Interracial Marriages Work Out N= 100 |Response |Frequency |Percentage | |Yes |63 |63% |No |36 |36% | |It depends |1 |1% | | | |Total 100% | Graph #6 [pic] Interpretation The table and graph above show that 63 out of 100 of 63% of the respondents do believe that interracial marriages can work out. On the other hand 36% believe that these marriages will not last and 1% said that it would depend. Analysis This shows that majority think these marriages do work out while a few believe that they don’t. A very small minority says that it would just really depend. This gives the impression that maybe these marriages do work out given that majority suppose so as well. Question #6. 1: If YES Table #6. 1
Respondents’ Opinions as to Why Interracial Marriages Work Out Well N= 118 |Response |Frequency |Percentage | |Love conquers all |19 |46% | |If one finds something in the marriage |95 |81% | |beneficial, he/she will have to adjust to | | | |his/her spouse | | |Others |4 |3% | | | |Total 100% | Graph #6. 1 [pic] Interpretation The graph and table above show that 81% of the 63 who answered that interracial marriages will work out think that these marriages will work out most likely because if one finds something in the marriage beneficial, he/she will have to adjust to his/her spouse. 16% had the idea that love conquers all while 8% had other things in mind. Analysis This shows that most of the respondents think that these Filipinos and foreigners will adjust to their spouses if they find something in their marriage beneficial. A few think that love conquers all while the rest thought otherwise.
This goes to show that a lot of people think these marriages are based on convenience rather that love. However; despite that, these marriages will work for the reason that if they find something which could be of their advantage in the wedlock, they would just have to be flexible and understand each other. Question #6. 2: If NO Table #6. 1 Respondents’ Opinions as to Why Interracial Marriages Will Not Work Out Well N= 74 |Response |Frequency |Percentage | |They were brought up into different world, |29 |39% |they wouldn’t understand each other | | | |If the relationship isn’t based on love, it|42 |57% | |won’t last | | | |Others |3 |4% | | | |Total 100% | Graph #6. 2 [pic] Interpretation The data shows that 57% of the respondents who didn’t think interracial marriages work out had the idea that if the relationship wasn’t based on love in the first place, that relationship wouldn’t last.
On the other hand, 39% of the respondents said that being brought up into different cultures would be a hindrance to the relationship while 4% though otherwise. Analysis The data shows that majority think that these relationships wouldn’t last because they weren’t based on love whilst another minority thinks differently. If related to the previous analyses, this gives the impression that maybe these marriages aren’t really based on love after all. Question #7: How do you think these marriages would affect the Philippine society? Table #7 Respondents’ Opinions as to How Interracial Marriages Would Affect the Philippine Society N= 108 |Response |Frequency Percentage | |It will make us lose our identities as |30 |28% | |Filipinos | | | |The Filipino people will be branded as |50 |46% | |”Gold Diggers” | | | |Others |28 |26% | | | |100% | Graph #7 [pic] Interpretation The figures above show that out of the 3 given choices for possible effects interracial marriages would bring about, majority think that the Filipino people will be branded as “Gold Diggers” with a frequency of 50 over 108 or 46%. The idea that Filipinos would lose their identities follows with the frequency of 30 over 108 or 28%. The remaining 26% fall under the category others. Analysis
The table and graph above show that most people think that these marriages would make other nations brand us as “Gold Diggers” while only a few think that we’d lose our identities. Another minority also think otherwise. This gives the impression that these marriages are based on money or else they wouldn’t think that these marriages would make other nations brand us as so. It also gives the impression that Filipinos have a strong sense of character since only a few worry of Filipinos losing their identities. Question #8: All in all do you think these marriages are for the better or worse of the country? Table #8 Respondents’ Opinion if Interracial Marriages are for the Better or Worse of the Country N= 100 Response |Frequency |Percentage | |Better |78 |78% | |Worse |18 |18% | |Neither |4 |4% | | | |Total 100% | Graph#8 [pic] Interpretation From the data above, it can be seen that 78 out of 100 or 78% believe that interracial marriages are for the better of the Philippines. The thought that these marriages are for the worse of the country come in second with a frequency of 18 over 100 or 18%. The remaining 4% think neither. Analysis
The table and graph above show that most people think that these marriages would actually be good of the Philippines. A few think that they are actually far the worse while another minority thinks neither. This goes to show that a lot of people are optimistic about what interracial marriages will bring about to the Philippine society. Summary Interracial marriages have augmented as the years have gone by, even though it was once considered a grave taboo. This study has been conducted as to see what the people currently living in the Cebu Province think of these interracial marriages and how it might affect the Philippine society. The researchers have gone through various tasks.
Once the researchers have decided on having interracial marriages and their effects to the Philippine society as a topic, they had it approved and started to research on anything they could find on interracial marriages. They made use of different resources such as books, magazines, newspapers and the internet to acquire more knowledge on the topic in order to draw out a problem. They then chose a survey type of research to find the answer to it. They then made the first chapter which contains the introduction, the statement of the problem, the review of related literature, the significance of the study, the scope and limitation, the definition of terms and the organization of the study. Then they have devised a questionnaire which should get the respondents’ opinion on the topic.
After which the researchers determined the method of research they were to use for this term paper, the procedure they would follow, the instruments they would utilize, the environment they would cover and the subjects whose opinions they were going to ask of. Once they finished determining the following above, they put what they have settled on into writing. They distributed the questionnaires to the selected and random respondents and later retrieved them. Subsequently they recorded, graphed, interpreted, analyzed and concluded the data. Conclusion After many days and weeks of hard work which needed much patience, perseverance, endurance, sweat and blood, the researchers were able to arrive at certain conclusions which would answer the different objectives stated in the earlier chapter of the study. These days, it isn’t very unusual for most people to see a Filipino with a oreigner, because you can see a lot of these people in the malls, indicating that most of these couples are not afraid of exposing their relationships to the public and aren’t afraid of what people might think of them. Most of the respondents think that a life of luxury is the most probable reason for these interracial marriages and why these Filipinos choose to marry foreigners over their fellow countrymen. In any marriage, there will always be difficulties, but in an interracial one, the most likely reason which bought about their matrimonial problems would be because of their cultural differences, because these people have been brought up in two entirely different worlds.
But a lot of people think that even if those interracial couple would face those kinds of dilemmas, their marriages would still work out well since they believe that if one finds something in the marriage beneficial, he/she would just have to adjust to his/her spouse. However, majority feel that with these kinds of marriages growing in number in the Philippines, the Filipino people would be branded as gold diggers, but nevertheless, most of the respondents believe that these marriages would be for the better of the country. These marriages are considered to be for the better of the Philippines by most respondents for various reasons. Some say that in a way, it will boost our economy and tourism, that it will lessen the overcrowding here in the Philippines, and that more beautiful Filipinos would be created that way. Recommendation
There are a lot of factors to consider as to why these Filipinos have decided to tie the knot with their lovers from distant lands. Majority think that these Filipinos chose to wed these foreigners because these outsiders are the fastest ticket there is to living a life of luxury. Marriage is no joking matter, and to marry an individual who has grown up from an almost completely different lifestyle isn’t easy. These marriages will not only affect the families of the spouses, they will affect everybody in a way. The researchers would like to recommend this study to the following: o Interracial Couples (married or not) This study will definitely help them make the right decision as to where to take their relationships.
With the insight of other people, they might be able to reflect if their liaison will actually take them somewhere. It will aid them in trying to understand each other, especially with the fact that they come from two totally different worlds, helping them adjust to one another so that they might not lose their identities. It might also help them prepare themselves for all possible consequences they might have to face, especially if their relationship is not based on love. o Teenagers Despite the fact that entering an interracial marriage (or any marriage for that matter) should be the farthest things on their minds as of the moment, this study should be able to prepare them for what action they should take before deciding to walk down the aisle.
Hopefully, this study would also help them try to improve how other countries view o People who plan to enter an interracial marriage It might make them contemplate on the decisions they are about to make, especially on marrying a foreigner. It should make them aware that by entering these marriages, some people have branded us gold diggers. But more importantly, it should help them contemplate on what they would get themselves in to by getting wed to a foreigner. o Other Researchers With Similar Studies This study will help other researchers with similar studies because it will give them an idea of what to do in their research. It might also serve them as a basis of information. Bibliography Electronic Sources: Websites:
Alouise, Nacy John. “Interracial Marriages and the Effects on Children. ” Race, Racism and the Law. 1998. 5 Jan. 2006 . Beaver, Laura. “Interracial Relationships: A Historical Perspective. ” Interracial Relationships. 2000. 28 Dec. 2005 . Lang, Susan S. “Interracial relationships are on the increase in U. S. , but decline with age, Cornell study finds. ” Chronicle Online. 2 Nov. 2005. 5 Jan. 2006 . Le, C. n. “Interracial Dating & Marriage. ” Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America. 2005. 4 Jan. 2006 . Pramschufer, Megan. “Interracial Relationships of the Chinese Americans. ” Interracial Relationships. 2000. 28 Dec. 2005 . Saia, Stefanie. The Transition to Romantic Relationships: Statistics on Interracial Marriage. ” Interracial Relationships. 2000. 28 Dec. 2005 . Sailer, Steve. “Is Love Colorblind? ” Steve Sailer-Articles & Blog on Human Biodiversity, Genetics, Sports, Race, Gender, Immigration. 14 July 1997. 5 Jan. 2006 . Sailer, Steve. “On Interracial Marriage. ” VDARE. 17 Sept. 2002. 5 Jan. 2006 . Sonnie, Heather. “Interracial Relationships with respect to the Caste System in India. ” Interrcial Relationships. 2000. 28 Dec. 2005 . Print Sources: Magazines: Kintanar, Han. “Dreaming of A Happy Ending. ” The Freeman Magazine Oct. 2002: g+. Books: Sung, Betty Lee. Chinese American Intermarriage. New York: Center for Migration Studies, 1989.