Contrast dye side effects analysis – Term Paper

4.1. Adverse drug reaction classification

Classification of the adverse reactions of the intravenous iodine-cased contrast drugs can be done on various basis and one of such is generalized classification which entail both the acute and delayed reactions on the human body. The second category is the organ specific reactions which deal with the effects that affect selected organs of the body which include pulmonary, neurotoxicity, cardiovascular and contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (Kanakia, Toussaint, Kukarni, Lee, Chowdhury, Khan & Sitharaman, 2016). There is also the class of mild acute general adverse reactions that include mild urticarial, nausea, vomiting and pain in the parts injected by the drugs. Moderate adverse effects, on the other hand include extensive urticarial, severe vomiting, dyspnea, laryngeal edema and rigors; severe reactions, on the other hand include conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, unconsciousness and circulatory collapse. Mild reactions in the body do not require any form of treatment and occur over a short duration of time. On the other hand, both moderate and sever reactions require medical attention to reduce such effects and help in the treating such conditions. There are also delayed adverse reactions that occur between 1 hour to 1 week after injection of iodine-based contrast drugs on the body of the patient (Joaquim, Matos, Pires, Fonseca, Tavares, Ramos & Rocha, 2015).

4.2. Acute General Reactions

4.2.1. Incidence

The probability of occurrence of the adverse reactions in the body decrease with the nonionic drugs as opposed to the ionic iodine-based contrast drugs in the population. It is, therefore, apparent that the effects reduce by 5 for the mild reactions and a factor of 10 for the severe reactions, this means that severe reactions can occur in 0.2 percent of all patients that receive ionic drugs and 0.04 percent on all the patients that receive nonionic contrast drugs (Fananapazir, Troppmann, Corwin, Bent, Vu & Lamba, 2016). However, the fatal reactions have very low probability of occurrence and this is similar with both the nonionic and the ionic contrast media.

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4.2.2. Predisposing Risk Factors

History of having adverse effects increases the probability of experiencing the adverse effects of iodine-based contrast drugs and this is apparent in degree of recurrence of adverse reactions by between 17 and 35 percent of patients with the history of adverse effects on the occasions when ionic contrast media are used. Using nonionic contrast media reduced the probability of occurrence of adverse effects to 5 percent which proves that medics in the medical profession needs to discourage the use of ionic iodine-based contrast drugs in the population (Frenzel, Lawaczeck, Taupitz, Jost, Lohrke, Sieber & Pietsch, 2015). In addition to the ionic properties of the contrast drugs, there are various predisposing factors that medics need to examine to help in making the right discussion on the best methods and drug properties to apply.

One of the predisposing factors the needs to be considered is the age of the patients and this is because acute adverse effects are less likely to occur in patients above the age of 50 years (Zdanowski, Szymczewska, Dykowska & Gotlib, 2015). However, the effects tend to be more severe on the elderly patients. It also apparent that previous adverse reaction to the iodine-based contrast media increases the probability of occurrence of severe reactions five times and any case or any history of allergy increases such a probability three times. Furthermore, asthma has a number of effects to the occurrence and the effects of adverse effects reactions by 10 times and for high osmolality contrast drugs and 6 times for the osmolality contrast drugs. Use of other drugs at the same time with the iodine-based contrast drugs also leads to the increase in the probability of occurrence of adverse effects on the body of the patients proving the need for medics to examine such effects and use drugs that do not react with contrast drugs in the body (Prasad & Gurm, 2016).

4.4.3. General Treatment Guidelines

It is a general policy for the usage of the contrast media for the purposes of radiological studies are concentration, lowest dose, and the number of doses a person requires to get diagnostic clinical information (Thomsen, 2014). Before carrying out administration of iodine-based contrast drugs, there is the need for medics to examine the effects of contrast drugs against the benefits a patient is likely to get from the administration from the drug. Such an examination improves the safety of the patients that intake contrast drugs and the same helps in ensuring that patients get the best treatments to avoid the effects and adverse reactions from iodine-based contrast drugs. In the process of carrying out the administration of iodine-based contrast, there must be availed various equipment and such include facilities for airway management, intravenous fluids, oxygen and masks, and the right drugs that eliminate the negative effects of the same (Prakashini, Kakkar, Sambhaji, Shetty & Rao, 2013).

4.4.4. Specific Treatment Policies

On the occasions when intravenous treatments are carried out in the patients and mild reactions occur on the patients, there is the need to retain the retain forms of iodine-based contrast drugs on the patients and improve the forms of treatment conducted. In any case a patient starts to vomit, the drug that should be used is prochlorperazine maleate 12.5 mg which is diluted with 10 Ml with saline water and injected intravenously for more than two minutes (Qiao & Shi, 2015). On the occasions when patients have severe vomiting, such forms of challenges can be treated using prochlorperazine maleate 12.5 mg which is diluted with 10 mL with normal saline water and the same is injected intravenously for more than 2 minutes into the body of the patients to treat such conditions. The other medication than can be given out is chlorpheniramine maleate which is give between 4 and 8 mg orally or between 10 and 20 mg intravenously for more than 2 minutes intravenously for the patients that suffer from severe urticaria. Finally, moderate wheeze can be treated through the use of 100 percent oxygen mask inhalation, which is either inhalation of between 10 and 15 L/min and albuterol nebulization of between 5 mg in 2 mL saline water for the prevention (Modi, Vaidya, Dudhia & Shah, 2014).