Chapter III

This chapter gives the reader a concise view of the ways on which the proposed research would be undertaken. The items to be described include the design, the philosophy, and the instruments to be employed in data collection. Additionally, this section focuses on the selected population as well as the sample size to be used. Finally, it entails how the collected data would be analyzed and the statistical techniques to be used.

Research Philosophy

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The nature of the proposed research can be categorized as neutral, which means that the research does not support or contest any side. It simply assesses both sides equally and without contesting or supporting either side. Therefore, the approach of the proposed study is deductive meaning that it aims at assessing different situations to determine the reality. The researcher would rely on the respondents to determine the real situation. This is the best approach because it allows for an effective assessment of the reality without any interference with the variables. The strict methodology as well as the provided data would ensure that the research objectivity is maintained.

Research Design

A quantitative and descriptive research design would be adopted in the intended research. A survey design would be adopted for the study, where the researcher would distribute the data collection instruments to the respondents. The design would also be a cross-sectional one, meaning that the data to be analyzed would be collected from a short period.

The rationale for selecting a quantitative and descriptive design is because it would be effective in collecting primary data as well as covering the research questions. A descriptive research helps in determining the way the situation is.

Data Collection

Data would be collected through a survey, whereby a structured questionnaire would be administered to the selected respondents. However, a non-structured question would be included to assess the respondents opinion on the type of leadership style they deem effective. This data collection technique was selected because it helps in identifying the respondents feelings and opinions towards the subject. Therefore, it would be appropriate in the intended research.

 The instrument to be used for data collection is the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). This instrument has been used by various researches to assess the correlation between an organizations performance and the type of leadership (Randeree & Chaudhry, 2014). Additionally, secondary data would also be collected from the available literature, especially the previous studies assessing leadership style and organizational performance. The dependent variables in the study would be both financial and non-financial indices. Financial indices include the revenue, profit before tax, current ratio, debt/asset ratio, and other financial indices. The non-financial indices include loyalty and productivity, effort, satisfaction, and effectiveness. The independent variable would both transactional and transformational leadership styles. The variables would be operationalized to determine the impact of leadership style on organizational performance. The two independent variables would be given an equal weight. Data on organizational performance would be based on positive questions, where the respondents would be asked to agree or disagree with a positive statement about the performance of the organization against other organizations in the sector. Each question would use Likerts five point scale to assess the responses of the participants. Additionally, secondary data would be collected from the organizations websites and other annual reports to assess the financial performance of the organizations.

Reliability and Validity

Reliability refers to when the instrument gives similar outcomes under even conditions regardless of the time factor while validity refers to the degree in which the experiment undertakes the intended measure.

The selected instrument (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire) has been tested for reliability and validity and also used by several researches related to the subject of the proposed research. However, reliability and validity of the proposed study would be tested using the Cronbachs alpha test. The approach has been applied in different studies and proved effective in relationship related studies (Ojokuku, et al., 2012). Reliability would be ensured by adjusting the various questions used in the instrument to favor the current study objectives. Additionally, the validity would be ensured by ensuring that the questionnaire is line with the definitions of the research.

Research Sample

The respondents to be used in the research include both public and private organizations in West Midland, England. Both business oriented organizations and non-business organizations would be used in the study. A stratified sampling method would be used to divide the organizations according to three major regions in the study area. The strata selected include Birmingham, Wolverhampton, and Coventry cities. An equal number of organizations would be selected from each strata; that is, two public, two private, and a non-profit oriented organization from each strata. This would make a total of five organizations from each strata, and the total number of organizations to be selected for the study would be fifteen. The respondents would include the employees of these organizations, which includes the executive officers and the subordinate workers. A purposive sampling would be used to select two top executives from each organization. A random sampling technique would be used to select eight subordinate employees within the departments in the organization. Therefore, a total of ten respondents from each organization would be selected, which means that the total number of respondents would be 150. The research questionnaire would be administered directly by the researcher for the purpose of explaining to the respondents on the purpose of the study as well as ways of filling the questionnaire.

The rationale of using stratified sampling method is to ensure to ensure validity and reliability of the study results. Additionally, the data collected would elicit the situation within the West Midland. Random sampling used in selection of the respondents is also appropriate because it also ensures that the study results are generalized to the whole population.

Data Analysis

Data would be analyzed using correlations as well as the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) through multiple regression. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) would be employed in the analysis. The OLS model was selected because it allows multiple variables to be analyzed in a single model, which allows the responses to be captured in a multivariate way (Bodla & Nawaz, 2014). The opinion question would be coded through the introduction of dummy values for an easy analysis. Coding of the opinions would involve identifying the attributes and qualities that the respondents consider effective in improving an organizations performance. The respondents would be guided to ensure that their responses are focused on the characteristics of both transactional and transformational leadership style. Therefore, coding would be based on the responses; that is, agree or disagree with either transactional or transformational leadership in improving an organizations performance.

Limitations and Delimitations

The major limitations of the proposed study include non-consideration of other variables beyond the ones mentioned in this study proposal. Additionally, the selected companys information on performance may not be up to date or available. Moreover, the research would only be limited to West Midland, England. The major delimited factor in the proposed study would be focusing on other leadership styles. The study would only focus on the transactional and transformational leadership styles.

Ethical Consideration

The study would ensure a number of ethical standards:

 Consent- the respondents would be presented with consent forms to sign that they are willing to participate in the study. The researcher would explain to the respondents about the aims of the study to ensure that they make informed decisions to participate in the study.

 Privacy- the privacy of the respondents would be ensured by ensuring that no information provided by the respondents is disclosed. The respondents responses would only be used for the purpose of the research and no questions would asked with malicious intentions.

 Confidentiality- the confidentiality of the respondents would be ensured by using the provided information for the purpose of the research and for other fishy intentions.


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