Biosensors are the analytical devices which serve for the identification of the biochemical components in the human organs, tissues and cells. In biosensors the biological component is connected with the physical-chemical transducer. Every biosensor consists of three elements which maintain its work. The first one is the sensitive biological element – this element is supposed to be the example of the definite tissue, enzymes, certain microorganisms, organelles, cells, nucleic acid, etc., so that it is the material of biological origin which can also be produced with the help of genetic engineering. The second component of a biosensor is a transducer, which serves like a transmitter and decipherer of the information received though the contact of the sensitive biological element with the analyte. The transducer works according to the physical-chemical principles but there are also optical and electrochemical devices.
The third element of the device is the electronics which illustrates the results of the analysis in the convenient for the expert way. The most well-known commercial biosensor is the one which measures the level of glucose in the human blood which uses glucose oxidase enzyme for the splitting of the glucose which exists in the human blood. Probably one of the oldest examples of biosensors in the human history is domestic canaries which were used by the miners in order to prevent the gas leak. The modern biosensors work according to the similar principles – they use the live organisms which react to the slighter concentrations of toxic elements and it provides the human being with the signal that there is poison or toxic element under analysis.
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Biosensors are the devices which are able to detect the harmful toxic elements on the substances and objects under analysis relying on the qualities of the live organisms. It is possible to apply the devices in medicine and in industry, for example, in oil and food industry and in the process of water purification. The student should explain the structure and the purpose of application of biosensors, define their importance in different spheres of the human life, write about the advantages and disadvantages of biosensors and provide the reader with the examples of the practical use of biosensors in healthcare, industry and other fields.
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