Cryptography Term Paper:
Quantum cryptography is the science which studies the methods of protection of means of communication and is based on the principles of quantum mechanics, whose objects (photons, phonons and gravitons) ensure the transmission of information. In comparison with the traditional cryptography, which uses mathematical methods, in order to ensure the security of information, quantum cryptography is based on physics, observing the cases when information is transmitted with the help of the means of quantum mechanics. The processes of transmission and receiving of information are always carried out by the physical means, for example, with the help of electrons in electricity and photons in fiber optic communications. Eavesdropping can be treated like the measurement of the definite parameters of physical objects; in this case – information carriers. The technology of quantum cryptography is based on the principal uncertainty of the quantum mechanics’ behaviour.
The principles of quantum cryptography were formulated in the second part of the 20th century in 1970-ies. With the help of the means of quantum mechanics it is possible to create such a communication network which would be able to detect eavesdropping at a moment’s notice. Due to the uncertainty of the channel of communication it is easy to detect whether the third person tries to listen to the information illegally. The first well-constructed reliable quantum cryptography system was created in the science centre of IBM in 1989 and since that the system has been developed and improved seriously. In 2011 was the latest improvement of the system and it is supposed to be used in cellular communication networks in order to protect the privacy of the mobile phone users.
Quantum cryptography is the useful method of the protection of information from the third people in communication networks. The student who is asked to prepare a good term paper about the problem should study the issue in detail and observe the principles quantum cryptography from different sides. The student is obliged to demonstrate his knowledge about the history, the functions and principles of quantum cryptography system, the strong and weak sides of the system, the factors which influence it and the spheres where the technology of quantum cryptography can be applied on practice.
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