A Requirements Model for PSS by Marina et al – Term Paper


    Following a discussion on a requirements Model for PSS by Marina et al, in current days, markets are demand driven. The supply of companies on different products come from customer demand. Solutions to customer needs is necessary from the companies producing goods. To deal with customer preferences companies provide bundles in the form of software, hardware and services called PSS. Requirement Engineering has develop PSS about customer demand providing uplifting solutions. However, in practice, Marina et al stresses that the methodology required to integrate Requirement Engineering in Software, service, and hardware that meet the needs by PSS is missing. Marina et al says the method integrating PSS is not available because the software, hardware as well as the services need more energy other than the efforts that technical services and products need. This prospect report focuses on problems arising from PSS and presents a model for solving these issue.

Problems associated with PSS

As Marina et al suggests, there are a number of problems associating to PSS which include;

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Conceptualizing Gap

The researchers identify a gap existing between development and requirement which makes stakeholders and customers have hard times in putting their needs into the reality check. Marina et al says that doing away with such a gap is important to companies.

Independence development of components of PSS in practice

Developing PSS components independently brings problems in coordinating development projects and forming into one of PSS components. Following the aforestated problem, Marina et al says it is necessary to come up with an integrated requirement for PSS in engineering. The built-in element solves the association of developers dealing with product design, service and software engineering. To them, the development process and the complexity of the PSS sorted using built-in elements. 

Intermingling of requirements at different levels of abstraction

The researchers suggests that tracing unique needs which ensure that a robust solution exists makes customers satisfied. By so doing, companies emulate Marina et al idea in developing their programs to solve problems. They say such companies are solution-oriented and satisfy customer demands.

Diversified expectations from stakeholders.

Research authors say that interested parties and companies have different expectations from the PSS. Their expectations resolve around product specifications. Most customers express their demands in an ambiguous manner. Companies need to come up with a neutral way of providing solutions for defining customer need. Altering fundamental requirements into a language of hardware developers, service makers, and software implementers make PSS functional. As a result, Marina et al points out that the requirements will be understood by PSS developing domains.

Coordination problems

Authors suggests that coming up with a unified understanding between the entire unit of PSS is not that easy. The reason behind the named problem is the inability to come up with an understanding that deals with the whole solution. Additionally, the particular domain requirement is not easy to create. 

The different life cycle in PSS components.

Marina et al points out that in situations when the software becomes outdated before the hardware, further components requirements are altered to change.

RDMod Technique

Strengths of RDMod

To Marina et al, the RDMod is a technique that points out a specification generally and outlays structural specifications for the requirements. The model makes it easy to categorize all the needs, which are concrete about the process of development. By differentiating conditions, Marina et al says categories are created to describe artifacts utilized as a common ground to support communication needs among stakeholders. By so doing, Marina et al says the developers, firms, and customers associate to the progressive agenda at all times. The process of differentiating needs makes it open to understanding requirements.

Results obtained from the RDMod suggested by Marina et al  

Reaseach authors point out individual solutions that qualify customer needs and demand to be easy to handle in the current business environment. They say that optional functional abilities emerge making a flexible customer relation which is in comparison to products and services in the market.Clients and stakeholders are satisfied since the problem of meeting their expectations defined in different requirement are solvable. Lastltly, Marina et all says that Companies can come up with an integrated bundle which incorporates various components which are hard to distinguish them from outside. 

Strengths of RDMod

Marina et all stresses on follow-up: Initial requirements and specific needs are all easy to trace. They use the model to present how the relationship among the predecessor together with the successor is well defined in the obligation to make a good follow-up.

They present Systems in modularization to be very flexible. Their ease of operations emerges from the capsule of defined and specific services.

There is a creation of hardware, service and software components which are of high standard and which can indicate modules that interact with one another.

Weaknesses of the RDMod 

  Marina et al criticizes a lack of the ability to distinguish between specification models for requirements from contents.

Lack of uniform requirement outlook in a document for product requirement and the specification of function is another weakness of RDMod by the authors.

The presence of elements with different details and the inability to assess feasibility in running projects marks a great downfall of the model.

Potential improvement suggested by Marina et al

Marina et al proposes that the RDMod should be applied in the current business environment to come up with the innovative practicum part of the model.

These authors say that making sure that the conceptual gap existing between development and requirement is covered brings a solution for the functionality of the model.

They emphasize that RDMod should assess current projects feasibility.


This research reports on the problems associating to PSS and uses a model RDMod to handle the listed problems. As suggested by Marina et al, the supply of products depends on customer demand, Marina et al urges companies to streamline their relationships with their clients. Therefore, organizations provide bundles in the form of software, hardware and services called PSS. So as to provide solutions that are fitting. Requirement Engineering has do develop PSS about customer demand. Moreover, different models such as RDMod assists in handling client needs as Marina et al discuses in their article.