Brazil Culture

ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION JANUARY 2007 .INDEX Preface……………………………………………………………………………3 List of Tables……………………………………………………………………. 3 I. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………. 4 II. CULTURAL PATTERNS OF BRAZIL……………………………………. A. Social Institutions………………………………………………………. 1. Historical………………………………………………………………5 2. Geographical…………………………………………………………. 7 3. Demographical……………………………………………………….. 8 4. Political……………………………………………………………….. 10 5. Economic………………………………………………………………13 6. Religious………………………………………………………………. 20 7. Linguistic………………………………………………………………20 8.

Educational……………………………………………………………23 9. Aesthetic………………………………………………………………. 24 B. Organizational Culture…………………………………………………. 1. Work Values, Traditions, Norms and Expectations…………………31 2. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Patterns……………………37 IV. USEFUL INFORMATIONS…………………….. ……………………….. 41 V. SOURCES …………………………………………………………………….. 42 PREFACE In this term paper, which is about Brazil? We try to explain Social Institutions, Traditions, Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Patterns, some useful informations of Brazil. According to our research Brazil is a lively country.

It has a large acculturation of other ethnic groups. The country’s tourism well developed, has beautiful beaches, and famous carnivals. Lots of tourists choose Brazil to have fun. Therefore tourism has an important and large placement in country’s economy. The Brazilians are friendly and helpful people. While we were doing this research we enjoyed very much. We hope you will enjoy and learn useful information about Brazil. We hope you will work with Brazilians and those informations will be very useful for you. Brazilian economy is developing from day to day and it performs very effective economical programs.

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In recent years Brazilian economy has trade surplus and in 2006 Brazil paid all debts to IMF. With those economic developments Brazil will start to be a very hopeful model. List of Tables 1- ) General Informations about Brazil 2- ) Economic Indicators 3-) Some Important Portugese Words BRAZIL Brazil is the largest and most populous country in South America; and the fifth largest in the world in both area and population. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it is the easternmost country of America and borders every other South American country other than Ecuador and Chile (viz.

Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French department of French Guiana). Brazil was colonized by Portugal and it is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas. It is a multiracial country with a population composed of European, Amerindian, African and Asian elements. The country’s Roman Catholic population is the single largest of any country in the world. The green color of the Brazilian flag represents the rainforest, yellow represents gold which can be found in abundance and blue represents the ocean.

CapitalBrasilia 15°45? S 47°57? W Largest City Sao Paulo Offical Languages Portuguese Government Federal Republic PresidentLuiz Inacio Lula da Silva Vice President Jose Alencar Gomes da Silva Independence From Portugal DeclaredSeptember 7, 1822 RecognizedAugust 29, 1825 RepublicNovember 15, 1889 Area Total8. 514. 877 km square (5th) 3. 287. 597 sq mile Water (%)0,65 Population 2005 estimate 187. 560. 000 (5th) 2000 census169. 799. 170 Density 22km sq. (182nd) 57/sq mi. Currency Real ( BRL) Time Zone (UTC-2 to-5 (officially -3)) Internet TLD .br

Calling Code +55 TABLE 1 THE HISTORY OF BRAZIL Portuguese Discoveries (1487-1497) In the 15th and 16th centuries Portugal, an Iberian Kingdom with barely a million inhabitants, was hemmed in by the Atlantic in front and by a hostile Castile behind. After years of struggle against the Moorish occupation, the Portuguese turned their attention and energy to the sea and what lay beyond. While the Spaniards set out in search of a route to the Orient by voyaging to the West, the Portuguese opted for the so-called Southern Cycle down the African coast.

Reaching the Cape of Good Hope in 1487, they were led by the navigator, Vasco da Gama, across the Indian Ocean to discover the sea route to the Far East in 1497. They knew of the existence of lands across the Atlantic and they had made several expeditions to the West before Columbus discovered the Antilles in 1492, but they had kept the knowledge to themselves in order to forestall the ambitions of Spain, England, and France. For a small nation, secrecy was the only available method of safeguarding the rewards of bold and successful exploration against exploitation by more powerful maritime rivals.

The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) settled the question of possession of the new lands between Spain and Portugal. It was agreed that territories lying east of a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Portugal, the lands to the west to Spain. This imaginary line, from pole to pole, cut through the eastern- most part of the South American continent and constituted Brazil’s first frontier, although the formal discovery by Pedro Alvares Cabral did not take place until six years later in 1500. First Settlements (1530-1549)

Cabral’s voyage was soon followed by other Portuguese expeditions. The most exploitable wealth they found was a wood that produced red and purples dyes, pau-brasil (from which the country derived its name). Organized occupation only began in 1530, when Portugal sent out the first colonists with domestic animals, plants, and seeds to establish permanent settlements. The existing small enclaves in the northeast were consolidated. Sao Vicente on the coast of the modern State of Sao Paulo was founded in 1532, and the city of Salvador, later chosen as the seat of the Governors General, followed in 1549.

The land was sparsely inhabited by Indian tribes, some peaceful and others, especially in the interior, fierce and warlike. As more of the land was settled, a system of administration became necessary. As a first step, the Portuguese Crown created a number of hereditary fiefs, or captaincies. Fourteen of these captaincies some larger than Portugal itself were established in the mid 16th century, and the beneficiaries, called donatarios, were responsible for their defense and development. The captaincy system lasted long enough to influence the basic territorial and political pattern of modern Brazil.

The Colonial Period The moist and fertile seaboard of what is now the State of Pernambuco was very suitable for growing sugar and also conveniently located as a port of call for sailing ships traveling from Portugal to West Africa and the Orient. The sugar plant and the technique of its cultivation had reached Brazil from Madeira. A flourishing triangular trade soon developed, based on the importation of slave labor from West Africa to work on sugar plantations. The sugar was exported to markets in Europe where rising demand was beginning to outrun supplies from traditional sources.

The Union of Spain and Portugal (1580-1640) This development was interrupted by events in Europe. When King Sebastian of Portugal died in 1578, Philip II of Spain succeeded in his claim to the vacant throne in Lisbon. From 1580 to 1640, the two Peninsular kingdoms were linked together under the Spanish crown. Thus, by the union of the two countries, South America became, for the time span, in its entirety a Hispanic world. Paradoxically, Portugal’s 60 years of union with Spain were to confer unexpected advantages on her transatlantic colony.

In the absence of boundaries, both the Portuguese and the Brazilians started penetrating deeper into the vast hinterlands. The main starting point for this exploration was the captaincy of Sao Vicente, and it was from their base in Sao Paulo that the pioneers pushed the frontier forward from the seaboard into the interior. Expeditions (known as Bandeiras) in search of Indian slaves cut their way through forest, climbed the difficult escarpments, and marched across the inland plateau. The expeditioners (Bandeirantes) are known to have brought back with them Indians captured from Jesuit missions scattered in the interior of the country.

Thus, without their realizing it, the Bandeirantes expanded the boundaries of the future independent Brazil. Territorial Expansion (1600’s) In 1640, when the Portuguese under John VI recovered their Independence, they refused to abandon the lands they had occupied and colonized west of the original Tordesillas line. Claiming what has since become recognized in international law as the right of uti possidetis the right derived not only from title but also from useful possession; the Portuguese succeeded in establishing themselves as the rightful owners.

The second half of the 17th century saw Portugal freed from Spanish rule, the northeast of Brazil liberated from a 24-year occupation by Dutch forces, and the weakening of Brazil’s sugar economy. The decline of sugar production was followed by a movement outward from the sugar growing regions to unexplored territories. Proclamation of Independence (1822) The irritating opposition of Lisbon’s politicians to this state of affairs and the cajoling from close Brazilian advisers attracted the young prince to the cause of independence.

Barely a year after the King’s return to Portugal, on September 7,1822, the Crown Prince proclaimed the independence of Brazil as an Empire and had himself solemnly crowned Emperor Pedro I on December 1, 1822. The mastermind behind Brazilian independence was Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva, a distinguished Brazilian geologist and writer who had become the most important and trusted of the Prince’s advisers. While the Spanish viceroyalties in America had to fight fiercely for their independence (to end up as 18 different republics), Portugal and Brazil settled the matter by negotiation, with Great Britain acting as a broker.

After a relatively short war of independence (1822-1824) Brazil became an Empire under Dom Pedro I, who, nevertheless, continued to be the heir to the Portuguese throne. GEOGRAPHY The beaches of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, are famous worldwide. Brazil is characterized by the extensive low-lying Amazon Rainforest in the north and a more open terrain of hills and low mountains to the south — home to most of the Brazilian population and its agricultural base. The toucan is a typical animal of the Brazillian rainforests.

Along the Atlantic seacoast are also found several mountain ranges, reaching roughly 2,900 metres (9,500 ft) high. The highest peak is the 3,014 metre (9,735 ft) Pico da Neblina (Myst’s Peak) in Guiana’s highlands. Major rivers include the Amazon, the largest river in the world in flowing water volume, and the second-longest in the world; the Parana and its major tributary, the Iguacu River, where the impressive Iguacu falls are located; the Negro, Sao Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and the Tapajos rivers Located mainly within the tropics, Brazil’s climate has little seasonal variation.

In southern most Brazil, however, there is subtropical temperate weather, occasionally experiencing frost and snow in the higher regions. Precipitation is abundant in the humid Amazon Basin, but more arid landscapes are found as well, particularly in the northeast. A number of islands in the Atlantic Ocean are part of Brazil •Sa? nt Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago •Rocas Atoll •Fernando de Noranho •Trindade and Martim Vaz REGION Geographically, mainland Brazil is commonly divided into five regions: North, Northeast, Centre-West, Southeast and South. The North: Constitutes 45. 7% of the surface of Brazil and it is the region with the lowest number of inhabitants. With the exception of Manaus, which hosts a tax-free industrial zone, it is a fairly unindustrialised and undeveloped region. It accommodates most of the largest rainforest of the world and many Indigenous tribes The Northeast: has one third of Brazil’s population. The region is culturally diverse, with roots from the Portuguese colonial period, Afro-Brazilian culture and some Brazilian Indian influence. It is also the poorest region of Brazil, and has long periods of dry climate.

It is well-known for its beautiful coast. The Central-West: is the region where the Brazilian capital, Brasilia, is located. despite that it has a low demographic density compared to the other regions, mostly because it is occupied by the Pantanal, the world’s largest marshlands area, and a small part of the Amazon rainforest, in its northwestern area. However, much of the region is overgrown by Cerrado, the largest savanna in the world. It is also the most important area for agriculture in the country. The most important cities are: Brasilia, Goiania, Campo Grande and Cuiaba.

The Southeast: is the richest and most densely populated region. It has more inhabitants than any other South American country, and hosts one of the largest megalopoles of the world, whereof the main cities are the country’s two biggest ones; Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The region is very diverse, including the major business centre of Sao Paulo, the historical cities of Minas Gerais and its capital Belo Horizonte, the third largest national city, the world famous beaches of Rio de Janeiro, and the acclaimed coast of Espirito Santo.

The South: is the wealthiest region by GDP per capita and has the best standard of living in the country. It is also the coldest region of Brazil, with occasional occurrences of frosts and snow in some of the higher altitude regions. The region has been heavily settled by European immigrants, mainly of Italian, German, Portuguese and Slavic genealogy, and shows clear influences from these cultures. The most important cities are: Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Florianopolis, Blumenau, Novo Hamburgo, Londrina, Caxias do Sul and Joinville. DEMOGRAPHICS Brazil’s population is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups.

In general, Brazilians are descended from four sources of migration. Amerindians, Brazil’s indigenous population, descended from human groups that migrated from Siberia across the Bering Strait around 9000 BC Portuguese colonists and settlers, arriving from 1500 onward. African slaves brought to the country from 1530 until the end of the slave trade in 1850. Diverse groups of immigrants from Europe, Asia and the Middle East arriving in Brazil during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is believed that the Americas were settled by three migratory waves from Northern Asia.

The Brazilian Indians are thought to be descended from the first wave of migrants, who arrived in the region around 9000 BC. The main Native Brazilian groups were the Tupi-Guarani, the Je, the Arawaks and the Caraibas (Caribs). The Tupi-Guarani nation, originally from the Parana river basin and also the main of Native-Paraguayan nations, had spread all along the Brazilian coastline from South to North and got to be known by the Portugueses as “Os Indios da Lingua Geral” (“The Indians of the General Language”); the Je nation occupied the most of the interior of the country from Maranhao to Santa Catarina.

The Arawaks and the Caribs, the last ones to get in contact with the Portugueses, lived in the North and Northwest of Brazil. The European immigration to Brazil started in the sixteenth century, the vast majority of them coming from Portugal. In the first two centuries of colonization, 100,000 Portuguese arrived in Brazil (around 500 colonists per year). In the eighteenth century, 600,000 Portuguese arrived (10,000 per year). The first region to be settled by the Portuguese was Northeastern Brazil, followed by the Southeastern region.

The interior began to be settled during the eighteenth century. The Portuguese were the only ethnic group to settle across Brazil. However, it’s also known that not so small numbers of Spaniards, especially from Galiza, had settled in Brazil along with the Portugueses back in the colonial times. Odds are that Diogo Alvares Correia a. k. a. “Caramuru”, one of the first settlers and hero of the settlement of Bahia, was actually a Galizan from La Coruna, so Francisco Romero, administrator of the Captaincy of Ilheus in the mid 1500s, was a Spaniard.

The original Amerindian population of Brazil (between three and five million) has in large part been exterminated or assimilated into the Portuguese population. The Mamelucos (or Caboclos, mixed-race between Whites and Indians) have always been present in many parts of Brazil. Another important ethnic group, Africans, first arrived as slaves. At first many came from Guinea, although by the end of the eighteenth century many had been taken from Angola and Mozambique (or, in Bahia, from Nigeria).

By the time of the end of the slave trade in 1850, around three to five million slaves had been brought to Brazil – 37% of all slave traffic between Africa and the Americas. The large influx of European immigrants to Brazil occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Between 1870 and 1930, more than 5 million immigrants entered Brazil. These immigrants were divided in two groups: a part of them was sent to Southern Brazil to work as small farmers. However, the biggest part of the immigrants was sent to Southeastern Brazil to work in the coffee plantations.

The immigrants sent to Southern Brazil were mainly Germans (starting in 1824, mainly from Rhineland-Palatinate, Pomerania, Hamburg, Westfalia, etc) and Italians (starting in 1875, mainly from the Veneto and Lombardia). In the South, the immigrants estabilished rural communities that, still today, have a strong cultural connection with their homeland. In Southeastern Brazil most of the immigrants were Italians (mainly from the Veneto, Campania, Calabria and Lombardia), Portuguese (mainly from Beira Alta, Minho and Alto Tras-os-Montes), Spaniards (mainly from Galicia and Andalusia).

Notably, the early part of the twentieth century saw a large influx of Japanese (mainly from Honshu and Okinawa) and Arabs (from Lebanon and Syria). These Arab immigrants were -and still are- wrongly called “Turks” by the Brazilians because their original countries were still under Turkish rule back in the times Arab immigration to Brazil began. Curiously, it was very few, if not even insignificant, the number of actual Turks who ever migrated to Brazil. According to the Memorial do Imigrante, Brazil attracted nearly 5. million immigrants between 1870 and 1953: approximately 1,550,000 Italians, 1,470,000 Portuguese, 650,000 Spaniards, 210,000 Germans, 190,000 Japanese, 120,000 Poles and 650,000 of many other nationalities. Brazil’s population is mostly concentrated along the coast, with a lower population density in the interior. The population of the southern states is mainly of European descent, while the majority of the inhabitants of the north and northeast are of mixed ancestry (Amerindians, Africans and Europeans).

According to the Brazilian constitution of 1988, racism is an unbailable crime and must be met with imprisonment. This is taken very seriously. ETHNICITY AND RACE The 2000 IBGE census found Brazil to consist of: •53. 7% white •38. 5% Mulatto •6. 2% black •0. 5% Asian •0. 4% Indian •0. 7% unspecified POLITICS Before we look at Brasil’s politics nowadays, we want to search the history of Brazil’s politics. Throughout its history, Brazil has struggled to build a democratic and egalitarian society, despite its origins as a plantation colony and the strong influence of slavery.

In 1889, Marshall Deodoro da Fonseca declared the republic. Until 1930, Brazilian republic was formally a democracy, although the power was concentrated in the hands of powerful land owners. In 1930, a bloodless revolution led Getulio Vargas to power. For about 15 years he controlled the country’s politics, with brief three-year constitutional interregnum (a period when no governor) from 1934-1937 a longer, heavier regime (Estado Novo) which had loose ties with European fascism. Like most of Latin America, Brazil experienced times of political instability after the Second World War.

When Vargas was ousted from the presidency in another bloodless, in 1945, a new and modern constitution was passed and the country had its first experience with an effective and wide-spread democracy, but the mounting tension between populist politicians (like Vargas himself and, later, Janio Quadros) and the right led to a crisis that ultimately brought up the military coup d’etat in 1964. , now known to have been supported by the CIA. Between 1964 and 1985, Brazil was governed by the military in alliance with conservative sectors of the civilian economic and social elite.

In contrast to other bureaucratic authoritarian regimes in the region, Brazil’s rulers maintained elections but reorganized the party system by reducing their total number to two: a pro-regime party and another which acted as a magnet to dissidents. FERNANDO HENRIQUE CARDOSO GOVERNMENT (1995-2002) Fernando Henrique Cardoso was educated as sociologist at the University of Sao Paulo and taught at various universities earning considerable popularity for his prolific writings and leftist views. In 1964 the military regime forced him into exile.

Returning to Brazil in 1968, Cardoso was prosecuted for his views and again left Brazil. He returned in 1973 and in the late 1970s became involved in politics. He was elected alternate senator (1979–1983) and federal senator (1983–1992) for the State of Sao Paulo on the list of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party. In 1988 he left PMDB and became a co-founder of the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira). Cardoso served as foreign minister (5 Oct 1992 – 20 May 1993) and finance minister (21 May 1993 – 5 Apr 1994) under President Itamar Franco.

Cardoso was responsible for implementing the Plan Real, a successful economic strategy, which resulted in dropping inflation rate from several thousand percent to less than 30 percent. Acquiring popularity with his economic policies, Cardoso won a sweeping victory in the 1994 presidential elections. Backed by a majority coalition in the National Congress, Cardoso passed fundamental legislative reforms dramatically reducing government involvement in the economy. The Cardoso administration privatized major state enterprises and attracted more foreign investments.

A land reform added to Cardoso’s popularity in rural Brazil. The Congress voted an amendment (4 Jun 1997) to the Constitution of 1988, allowing the president to stand for re-election. Despite worsening economic conditions, Cardoso was re-elected President of the Republic on 4 Oct 1998, for the second time defeating his leftist opponent, Luis Inacio Lula da Silva. Cardoso became the first Brazilian president to be democratically elected for two consecutive terms. LUIZ INACIO LULA DA SILVA (2002-…) Luis Inacio “Lula” da Silva was elected president of Brazil in 2002.

He was a populist left-wing candidate, leading a coalition of parties behind the banner of the Partidos Trabalhadores (PT, or Labor Party). Da Silva was born into poverty and trained as a metalworker, gradually becoming active in the Metalworker’s Union. He was elected president of the union in 1975. He was a prominent labor spokesman during a series of strikes (1978–81) and became a co-founder of the PT. He was elected to the country’s House of representatives in 1986 and in 1990 made his first of three unsuccessful runs at the presidency.

Lula was finally elected in 2002 on a platform of economic and political reform, promising especially to attack hunger in Brazil. He ran for reelection in 2006; despite a corruption scandal that tarnished his reputation as a reformer, he beat challenger Geraldo Alckmin in October of 2006 for a second term. He legally adopted the nickname Lula in 1982; the name, a play on his first name of Luis, means “squid” in Portuguese. THE OF CONSTITUTIONS OF BRAZIL Brazil has seven Constitutions until 2006 1824: The first Brazilian Constitutions, are made by Dom Pedro. It was monarchic. 891: The Republic was proclaimed in 1889, but a new constitution was not promulgated until 1991. this federalist, democratic constitution was heavily influenced by the U. S. model. 1934: When Getulio Vargas came to power in 1930, he canceled the 1891 constitution and did not permit a new one until 1934. Getulio Vargas was elected president by the Constitutional Assembly to a four-year term, beginning in 1933. 1937: Getulio Vargas instituted a corporatist constitution nicknamed “the polish”, written by Francisco Campos. 1946: After a military coup ousted dictatorial Getulio Vargas, an Assembly wrote a democratic constitution. 967: It are made by the military dictatorship. 1988: The progressive redemocratization culminated in the current constitution. Very democratic, it is more expansive than a normal constitution- many statutory acts in other countries are written into this constitution, like Social Security and taxes. The 1988 constitution grants broad powers to the federal government, made up of executive, legislative, and judical branches. The president holds office for four years, with the right to re-election for an additional four-year term, and appoints his own cabinet. STATES

Brazilian states are semi autonomous self-governing entities organized with complete administration branches, relative financial indepedence and their own set of symbols, similar to those owned by the nation itself. Despite their relative autonomy they all have the same model of administration, as set by the Constitution. State hold elections every four years and exercise a considerable amount of power, since the 1988 constitution—besides allowing them to keep their own taxes—mandated regular allocation of a share of the taxes collected locally by the federal government.

The executive is held by the governor and his appointed secretaries; the legislative is held by the Legislative Assembly; and the Judiciary; by the Law Court. The governors and the members of the assemblies are elected, but the members of the Judicary are appointed by the governor from a list provided by the current members of the State Law Court containing only judges. Each of the 26 governors must achieve more than 50 per cent of the vote, including a second round run-off between the top two candidates if necessary.

In 2002 candidates from eight different parties won the governatorial contest while 28 parties are represented in the country’s state legislatures. Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Soul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Notre, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION PARTICIPATON

African Development Bank, Customs Cooperation Council, United Nations Economis Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Food and Agriculture Organization Group of 11, Inter-American Development Bank, International Atomic Energy, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Chamber of Commerce, International Criminal Court, International Red Cross, International Development Association, International Fund for Agricultural Development, International Finance Corporation, International Hpdrographic Organization, International Labour Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunications Satellite, Interpol, International Olympic Committee, International Trade Union Confederation, Latin American Economic System, Nuclear Suppliers Group, World Tourism Organzation, World Trade Organization ECONOMY -History The Ecomomic history of Brazil covers various economic Events and traces the changes in the Brazilian economy of the course of the history of Brazil. From the Portugal’s discovery of Brazil in 1500 until the late 1930s, the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. Portugal subjected Brazil to a sternly enforced colonial pact, or imperial mercantile policy, which for three centuries heavily curbed development.

The colonial phase left strong imprints on the country’s economy and society, lasting long after independece in 1822. measurable changes began occuring only late in the 19th century, when slavery was eliminated and wage labor was adopted. Important structural transformations began only in the 1930s, when the first steps were taken to change Brazil into a modern semi-industrialized economy. These transformations were particularly intense between 1950 and 1981, when the growth rates of the economy remained quite high and diversified manufacturing base was established. However, since the early 1980’s the economy has experienced substantial difficulties, including slow and stagnation. Neverthless, Brazil stil has the potential to regain its formen dynamism.

In the mid- 1990s, it had a large and quite diversified economy, but one with considerable structural, as well as short term, problems. We can divide parts the history of Brazil’s economy. a-) Colonial Period: Portugal’s explonation of Brasil stemmed from the European commercial expansion of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Portuguese began in the early fifteenth century to search for sources of goods valued in European markets. They did not find mineral riches in their American colony, but they never lost the hope of someday finding such riches there. Meanwhile, in order to settle and defend the colony from European intruders, the Portuguese established a Pioneer colonial enterprise; the production of sugar in the Northeast.

Beginning in about 1531, cattle began arriving in Brazil, and a cattle industry developed rapidly in response to the needs of the sugar industry for transportation and food workers. —Sugar Cycle: By the mid-sixteenth century, Portugal had succeeded in establishing a sugar economy in parts of the colony’s northeastern coast. Sugar production, the first-larde-scale colonial agricultural enterprise, was made possible by a series of favorable conditions. Until the early seventeeth century, the Portuguese and the Dutch held a virtual monopoly on sugar exports on Europe. Later in other countries the sources of sugar were developed and Portuguese lost their monopoly. Later early in the eighteenth century gold and other precious minerals were found. Thus sugar lost its importance. Eighteenth-Century Gold Rush: As a result of the mineral discoveries, settlers flocked to the gold region, and growing numbers of slaves were transferred from the sugar areas and brought in from Africa. Gold mining was mainly alluvial panning, a labor-intensive activity. The extraction of gold increased rapidly until the 1750s when gold exports peaked. After the gold deposits became depleted and exports declined sharply in the last quarter of the eighteenth century, the Brazilian economy entered another long period of stagnation. b-) The Economy at Independence, 1822: Brazil’s early years as an independent nation were extremely difficult. Exports remained low, and the domestic economy was depressed. The only segment that expanded was the subsistence economy.

Resources (land, slaves and transport animals) made idle by the decline of the exports economy were absorbed into mostly self-consumption activities. -Coffee Economy (1830-1930): The impact of coffee on the Brazilian economy was much stronger that sugar and gold. When the coffee surge began, Brazil was already free from the limitations of colonialism. Moreover, the substitution of wage labor for slave labor after 1870 meant an increase in efficiency and the formation of a domestic market for wage goods. Finally, the greater complexity of coffee production was introduced in Brazil early in the eighteenth century, but initially it was planted only for domestic use.

It took the high world prices of the late 1820s and early 1830s to turn coffee into a major export item. During the initial phase, production was concentrated in the mountainous region near Rio de Janeiro. This area was highly suitable for coffee cultivation, and it had access to fairly abundant slave labor. Moreover, the coffee could be transported easily on mule trains or on animal-drawn-carts over short distances to the ports. Later with government’s supports coffee production moved along the Paraiba Valley toward Sao Paulo, which later became Brazil’s largest exporting region. The Brazilian economy grew considerably in the second half of the nineteenth century.

Coffee the mainstay of the economy, accounting for 63 percent of the country’s exports in 1891. However, sugar, cotton, tobacco, cocoa and, at the turn of the century, rubber were also important. During the first three decades of the twentieth century, the Brazilian economy went through periods of growth but also difficulties caused in part by World War I, the Great Depression, and an increasing trend toward coffee overproduction. The four- year gap between the time a coffee tree is planted and the time of the first harvest magnified cyclical supports during periods of excess production. The price supports induced an exaggerated expansion of coffee cultivation in Sao Paulo culminating in the hude overproduction of the early 1930s. Sweeping changes (1930-1945): The decade of the 1930s was period of the interrelated political and economic changes. Old Republic was abolished with 1930 revolution. To a large extent, the revolution of 1930 reflected dissatisfaction with the political control exercised by the old oligarchies. Those improvements influenced economy and economic problems in 1930. The coffee economy suffered from severe decline in world demand caused by the Great Depression and an excess capacity of coffee production created in the 1920s. As a result, the price of coffee fell sharply and remained at very low levels. Brazil’s terms of trade deteriorated significantly.

These events, and a large foreign debt, led to an external crisis that took almost decade to resolve. The government was forced to suspend part of the country’s debt payments and eventually to impose exchange controls. The state programs to support coffee prices went bankrupt in 1930. To avoid further decreases in coffee prices, the central government bought huge amounts of coffee, which was the destroyed. Central government intervention provided support to the coffee sector and, through its linkages to the rest of the economy. The World War II period saw mixed achievements. By the late 1930s, coffee production capacity had been reduced drastically, the worst of the external crisis had passed, and the Brazilian economy was ready to grow. Import- substitution industrialization (1945-1964) : At the end of the World War II, political and economic liberalism were reintroduced in Brazil. Getulio Vargas was overthrown, democratic rule was reestablished, and the foreign-exchange reserves accumulated during the war made possible a reduction of trade restrictions. However, trade liberalization was short-lived. The overvalued foreign-exchange rate, established in 1945, remained fixed until 1953. this, combined with persistent inflation and a repressed demand, meant sharp increases in imports and a sluggish performance of exports, which soon led again to a balance payments crisis. Later with elections import-substitution industrialization program are applied.

As a result of import-substitution industrialization, the Brazilian economy experienced rapid growth and considerable diversification. Between 1950 and 1961, the average annual rate of growth of the gross domestic product exceeded 7 percent. Industry was the engine of growth. It had an average annual growth rate of over 9 percent between 1950 and 1961, compared with 4. 5 percent for agriculture. In addition, the structure of the manufacturing sector experienced considerable change. Traditional industries, such as textiles, food products, and clothing, declined, while the transport equipment, machinery, electric equipment and appliances, and chemical industries expanded. Stagnation and spectacular growth (1962-1980): As a result of the problems associated with import-substitution industrialization and the reforms introduced by the military regime after March 1964, the Brazilian economy lost much of its dynamism between 1962 and 1967. Stagnation resulted from distortions caused by the strategy. Moreover, political troubles negatively affected expectations and precluded the formation of a coalition to back the introduction of tough measures to control inflation and the balance of payments crisis. Political troubles also hindered the removal of obstacles to growth. After 1967, Brazilian economy started to have spectacular growth.

The post- 1964 reforms and other policies of the military government, together with the state of the world economy, created conditions for very rapid growth between 1968 and 1973. As a result of the post- 1964 policies, external trade expanded substantially faster than the economy as a whole. There was a significant growth in exports, especially manufactured goods, but also commodities. Yet, imports grew considerably faster, rapidly increasing the trade deficit. This did not present a problem, however, because massive inflows of capital resulted in balance of payment surpluses. -Stagnation, Inflation and Crisis (1981-1994): The effect of the 1974-1985 periods’ industrialization on the balance of trade was significant. The recession and stagnation of the early 1980s had a role in reducing imports.

However, import substitution was also important, as demonstrated b the few years of the 1980s that experienced a significant growth in GDP while the trade surplus was maintained. The 1980s became known as the “lost decade”, and its problems spilled over into the 1990s. Despite the stagnation of the 1981-1992 period, inflation remained a major problem. It sometimes reached very high rates, prompting the implementation of short-lived shock-stabilization programs. ECONOMIC INDICATORS NOWADAYS GDP : 795,666 billions of USD (2005) GDP Growth : 2, 3% (2005) EXPORTS : 118 billions $ IMPORTS : 62, 8 billions $ INFLATION RATE : 3, 74 % (2006)

LABOR FORCE : 92. 680. 128 (2004) UNEMPLOYMENT : 10, 7 % (August 2006) TABLE 2 THE CURRENCY “REAL” Real is the currency of Brazil. The real was firstly used by the Portuguese settlers. It was currency until 1942. Later cruzeiro was the currency of Brazil until 1994. The real was implemented on 1 July 1994 as a part of a broader plan to stabilize the Brazilian economy, known as Plano Real. Although it depreciated in 1999, it increased rapidly after 2002 when President Lula was elected. Today 1 USD is equal to 2. 2135 Brazilian real. ECONOMIC PRODUCTS Brazil has very large natural resources. For example; manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium and oil.

Oil is very important for Brazilian economy. Besides Brazil has 14% of the world’s renewable fresh water. Agriculture of Brazilian economy comprises 10%of GDP. Especially coffee is important for agriculture. Coffee is an important import good for Brazil. Sugarcane, cocoa, rice, corn, oranges are other examples for Brazil’s agriculture Industry of Brazilian economy comprises 39% of GDP. It has various branches. Examples are steel, commercial, aircrafts, chemicals, petrochemicals, machinery, and automobiles. Many automobiles manufacturer opened their factories due to cheaper labor force and other opportunities, for example taxes, in Brazil. For example; Fiat.

Services of Brazilian economy are very important for Brazilian economy like other developing countries. It comprises 51% of GDP. Telecommunications, banking, energy, commerce are examples for services of Brazilian economy. THE IMPORTANCE OF SOME CITIES FOR ECONOMY Sao Paulo: It is the capital of the state of Sao Paulo in southeastern Brazil. Its population is over 11 million (2006), which makes it the largest and most populous city in the Southern Hemisphere and a global city. Nineteen million people live in greater Sao Paulo metropolitan area as defined by the government-making it one of the five most populous in the world. Berrini Avenue is the brand new financial center of Sao Paulo.

Sao Paulo is the financial and industrial centre of Latin America. The city is considered to headquarter more German companies than any other single city outside Germany. Sao Paulo’s GDP is around US$ 260 billion in 2006. There are a number of highly specialized regions, like Bom Retiro and Bras (wholesale garment districts), Consolacao (lighting equipment), Rua Santa Ifigenia (electrical and electronic parts), Rua Teodoro Sampaio (furniture and musical equipment), the posh Rua Oscar Freira (designer and label stores), Avenida Europa (automobiles) and the crowded Rua Vinte Cinco de Marco. Sao Paulo is also home to a large number of advertising and broadcasting companies.

In the last few years, Sao Paulo has become a major home to many international events and fairs, visited by the most varied audiences, ranging from scientists and artists to merchants and entrepreneurs, coming forum Brazil and also abroad. Some of the most important events that usually take place in the city are: ?Shoes and Sport Items International Fair-COUROMODA ?Textile Industry International Fair-FENIT ?Construction International Fair ?Cosmetics and Beauty International Fair-COSMETICA ?Car International Fair-SALAO do AUTOMOVEL ?International Book Fair-BIENAL INTERNACIONAL do LIVRO One of three industry products in Brazil is manufactured in Sao Paulo. Besides Brazil’s the largest oil refinery is in Sao Paulo. Since 1990th it expanded and therefore shanties (gecekondu) were increased. With those shanties many problems were developed in Sao Paulo.

Environment pollution, bad shelter, and transportation are examples of problems RIO DE JANEIRO:It is the name of both a state and a city in southeastern Brazil. Commonly known as just the city is also nicknamed “the marvelous city”. It is famous for its spectacular natural setting, its Carnival celebrations, samba and other music, hotel-lined tourist beaches. Thus many tourists come to Rio de Janeiro every year. Besides it has many multinational companies’ headquarters. BELO HORIZONTE: It has high information technology SOME BRANDS OF BRAZIL REDE TV: It is Brazil’s television network hosted in Sao Paulo. BRAHMA: It is a Brazilian beer, originally made by the Companhia Cervejaria Brahma, which was founded in 1888.

TOPPER: It is a Brazilian sportswear brand partially owned by the Argentine Alpargotas group, founded in 1975 with business in South America, but mainly in Brazil and Argentina. Its products range from footwear and clothing to underwear, sport bags, balls, and equipment in general for football, basketball, volleyball, rugby and tennis. CANELA: It is a Brazilian clothing brand. PETROBRAS: It is a government-owned Brazilian oil company headquartered in Rio de Janeiro. Petrobras operated the Petrobras 36 Oil Platform, the world’s largest oil platform. It has expanded the reach of its operations beyond Brazilian borders. Today it controls oil and power industries assets, as well as related business activities, in 18 nations in Africa, North America, South America, Europe and Asia.

The Financial Times newspaper listed Petrobras as one of the world’s 500 largest companies in 2005. (88th) RONALDINHO: He is a Brazilian footballer. His many achievements and accolades, Ronaldinho has been awarded the FIFA World Player of the Year award twice (2004, 2005), as well as the European Footballer of the Year award FIFPro World Player of he Year award (2005, 2006). He is loved by the many people in the world and he introduces Brazil properly. FOREIGN TRADE IN BRAZIL After registering a series of superavits since the early’s 80s, Brazil’s trade balance began to present continuous deficits after 1995. In the period from 1994 to 2000, imports had an average growth of 10. 9% a year, while exports expanded at the rate of 4. 3% a year.

In the period 1995-1996 the deficit was the result of a slowing of the exports growth and the strong increase of external purchasing after trade liberalization and appreciation of the actual exchange rate. In 1999, devaluation of the national currency failed to invert to negative balance but nonetheless significantly reduced the size. In 2000, exports reached the figure of US$ 55, 1 billion, an increase of 14, 7% against 1999, while imports, totaling US$ 55, 8 billion, grew 13, 2% during the same period of comparison. Brazil finds itself among the 30 leading exporter countries, ranking 28th in 2000 according to the World Trade Organization. The list of Brazilian exports is quite diversified, being comprised mostly of manufactured goods.

Considering the average for the period 1998-2000, manufactured goods accounted for 58% of the country’s total exports. Although the basics accounted for only 24% of Brazil’s exports in this same period, some of these goods are in prominent positions in the ranking of the principal goods exported by the country. Brazil’s imports have shown increasing diversification during 2001-1998, with raw materials and capital goods accounting for 49% and 27% of the imports list, respectively, considering the average for the period 1998-2000. Imports of consumer goods in turn had a 15% share in the same period. In this category, the imports of durable consumer goods are led by automobiles, which are prominent in the ranking of the main products imported by the country.

After 2001 Brazil has developed rapidly. Good economic programs were efficiently for economy. Today Brazilian economy has trade surpluses and Brazil paid all debts to IMF. INTERNATIONAL AGGREEMENTS Brazil is a member of several international organizations such as the United Nations Organization-UN, the International Monetary Fund-IMF and the World Bank. A GATT signatory since its beginning in 1948, in April 1994 Brazil signed the Marrakesh Act that brought to a close the Uruguay Round negotiations and created the World Trade Organization-WTO. Brazil is also part of the Organization of American States-OAS, and of the Inter-American Development Bank-IDB. INVESTMENTS

Brazil’s diversity places it in a position of distinction in the South American continent and strongly influences the attraction of foreign investment. It is the fifth largest country on the planet, with a population of about 180 million inhabitants, responsible for a very promising, predominantly urban, market. The country has the possibility to overcome the situation of exclusion from the digital world for a large portion of its population, due to an increase in telephone services, particularly in the case of prepaid mobile telephones. In addition, the development of a specific model of digital television makes the Brazilian market a gigantic laboratory for the use of applied technology.

Furthermore, Brazil has the largest and most diversified system of science, technology and innovation in Latin America, as a result of the accrual of accomplishments in the last 50 years, which include the capacity for oil prospection in deep waters and the ability to build aircrafts. Furthermore, the country invests in space and nuclear programs, as well as in new areas currently at the border of knowledge, such as nanoscience, nanotechnology and biotechnology. ECONOMICAL PROGRAMS The quest to increase the base of the country’s export companies led the Brazilian Government to include the Export Culture Program in the 2004/2007 Brazil for everyone.

The programs encourage the participation and support the export potential of small businesses. -The Brazilian Export Program: It brings together various government agencies and institutions under a single badge, involving a further 45 programs and projects. It comprises initiatives such as the diffusion of the image and culture of Brazil abroad through institutional campaigns, the strengthening of credit insurance for exports, skills training for professionals and others. -Industrial, technological and Foreign Trade Policy: A development initiative that joins financial, technological, logistic; commercial and structural support programs, with possibilities for innovation and future projection. Law of Innovation: It is organized around three axes: to provide a suitable environment for strategic partnership between universities, technological institutions and businesses; to encourage the participation of science and technology institutions in the innovation process; and to encourage innovation in business. BRAZIL AND IMF Before we break off the Brazilian economy, we want to look at the relationship between Brazil and IMF. In 1990’s the Brazilian economy had a high inflation rate. Brazil prepared an economic program with IMF to reduce inflation rate and therefore it started t use “real” which was a new currency in 1994. The regime of constant exchange rate was started to perform, structural reforms was activated, for example; privatization. Although those developments were realized, the debts of Brazil increased like Argentina.

In 1998 Brazil encountered a speculative crisis due to moratorium of Russia. (Legal postponement). At this point IMF didn’t support that Brazil used reserve of foreign currency and then in 1999 the regime of free exchange rate was started to perform and the real suffered by the 100%. Later Brazil’s economy started to increase rapidly. In 2002 President Lula was elected and he performed successful economical programs. Brazil paid all debts to IMF in 2006. RELIGION According to the IBGE census: 74% of Brazilians are Roman Catholics. Brazil possesses the largest Catholic population in the world. Followers of Protestantism are rising in number, their currently total 15. 4%.

Until 1970, the majority of Brazilian Protestants were the ones of Traditional Churches – Lutherans and Baptists mainly – but the Pentecostals and Neopentecostals have increased largely in numbers since then 7. 4% of the population consider themselves agnostics, atheists or without a religion. Spiritism, based on the Allan Kardec’s doctrine, constitutes 1. 3% of the population (about 2. 3 million). 1. 8% is members of other religions. Some of these are Latter-day Saints (900,000 followers), Jehovah’s Witnesses (600,000) Buddhism (215,000), Seicho-No-Ie (151,000), Judaism (230,000), and Islam (27,000). 0. 3% is followers of African traditional religions such as Candomble, Macumba, and Umbanda. Some practice a mixture of different religions, such as Catholicism, Candomble, and indigenous American religion combined.

Cristo Redentor (Christ the Redeemer) opens his arms wide as if to embrace all of Rio de Janeiro. The statue stands atop Corcovado Mountain, which visitors can climb by taxi or cog railway to gain unparalleled views of the city. LANGUAGE PORTUGUESE Portuguese is spoken in all continents, especially in Brazil, Portugal, Angola and some regions of China and India by approximately 250 million people. This language which is from the Latin branch of Indo-European languages is somewhat similar to Spanish, Italian and even French. Brazil was colonized by Portugal and it is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas The national language of Brazil is Portuguese.

Due to the influence of the many other languages already existing or brought over by immigrant groups, Brazilian Portuguese differs from that spoken in Portugal in the same way that Australian and American English differ from that of England. Until the mid 18th century a version of Tupi-Guarani (the main Indian language of the time), which had been simplified and written down by the Jesuits, was widely spoken. Today, however, this language is only remembered in words that have become part of the Brazilian vocabulary. These words are generally names of places (Guanabara, Ipanema, Niteroi), plants (abacaxi, guarana) or animals (piranha, capivara, urubu). African languages, especially from Nigeria and Angola, have survived in religious rituals, cooking and some general words, the most well-known example being samba.

Accents and slang vary widely within Brazil but are, in general, mutually comprehensible. English is often spoken in large cities and tourist centres. You might think that you’ll get around speaking Spanish but please remember, the in writing these languages are similiar but in speaking are more different and so they have difficulties in understanding this language. In writing porteguese is similar with spanish but in speaking are more different. brazilian understand spanish very well but spanish couldnt get easily brazilian. so they have difficulties in understanding hello – Ola Goodbye- Adeus Good morning – Bom dia Have a nice day – Boa tarde Good evening – Boa noite

Good night- Boa noite How are you? – Como vai? Thank you,I am fine – Bem, obrigado How are you – E voce? Please – Por favor Thank you – Obrigada Thank you – Obrigado You’re welcome -De nada Cheers – Saude yes- Sim no – Nao Is there any…? – Tem? There is – Tem There is not – Nao tem Today – Hoje TABLE 3 THE TREATY OF TORDESILLAS Just months after Christopher Columbus returned to Europe from his maiden voyage to the New World, the Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI gave Spain a head-start in the quest for domination over newly discovered regions of the world. The Pope decreed that all lands discovered west of a meridian 100 leagues (one league is 3 miles or 4. km) west of the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Spain while new lands discovered east of that line would belong to Portugal. This papal bull also specified that all lands already under the control of a “Christian prince” would remain under that same control. This limiting line made Portugal angry. King John II (the nephew of Prince Henry the Navigator) negotiated with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to move the line to the west. King John’s rationale to Ferdinand and Isabella was that the Pope’s line extends all around the globe, thus limiting Spanish influence in Asia. On June 7, 1494 Spain and Portugal met at Tordesillas, Spain and signed a treaty moved the line 270 leagues west, to 370 leagues west of Cape Verde.

This new line (located at approximately 46° 37′) gave Portugal more claims to South America yet also provided Portugal with automatic control over most of the Indian Ocean. While it would be several hundred years before the line of the Treaty of Tordesillas could be accurately determined (due to problems determining longitude), Portugal and Spain kept to their sides of the line quite well. Portugal ended up colonizing places like Brazil in South America and India and Macau in Asia. Brazil’s Portuguese-speaking population is a result of the Treaty of Tordesillas. Portugal and Spain ignored an order from the Pope in enacting their treaty but all was reconciled when Pope Julius II agreed to the change in 1506. EDUCATION

The Brazilian Constitution said about education that it is, “a right for all, duty of the State and of the family, and is to be promoted with the collaboration of society, with the objective of fully developing the person, preparing the individual for the exercise of citizenship and qualifying him/her for work. ” The Federal Government, through the Ministry of Education and Sports, defines the guiding principals for the organization of educational programs, but does not establish such programs local governments are responsible for establishing local educational programs following the guidelines and using the funding supplied by the Federal Government.

The National Educational Bases and Guidelines Law enacted in 1961 says that, “national education, inspired in the principles of freedom and in the ideals of human solidarity, has the purpose of: •understanding individual rights and responsibilities, as well as those of citizens, the State and other community groups; •respecting man’s dignity and fundamental freedoms; •strengthening national unity and international solidarity; •integral development of the human personality and his/her participation in the work towards common welfare; •preparing individuals and society to master scientific and technological resources which will allow the use existing ossibilities to common welfare; •protecting, disseminating and expanding cultural heritage; •Condemning any unequal treatment resulting from philosophical, political or religious belief, as well as any social classes or racial prejudices. ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE Education is divided into three levels, with several grades in each division. Fundamental education, intermediate education and higher education. -Pre School: It is entirely optional, and exists to aid in the development fewer than 7. It aims to assist in all areas of child development, including motor skills, cognitive skills, and social skills while providing fertile ground for the later acquisition of knowledge and learning. Fundamental Education: It is mandatory for children ages 6-14. There are 8 grades. The Federal Council of Education sets a core curriculum consisting of Portuguese, Social Studies, Physics, Biological Science, and Mathematics. Each educational system supplements this core curriculum with a diversified curriculum defined by the needs of the region and the abilities of individual students. -Intermediate Education: It can take anywhere from 3-5 years. Students must have finished their Fundamental Education before they are allowed to enroll in Intermediate school. Professional training is often included in Intermediate Education, and when it is, the education takes longer. Higher Education: Intermediate education is mandatory for those wishing to pursue higher education. In addition, students must pass a competitive entrance examination for their specific course of study. The number of candidates per available place in the freshman class may be in excess of 20 or 30 to one in the most competitive courses at the top public universities. Higher education in Brazil, as in many nations, can be divided into both undergraduate and graduate work. In addition to providing education, Universities promote research and provide stand-alone classes to the community. In Brazil arts, humanities, social sciences, mathematical ciences or natural sciences requires 4 years of post-secondary studies at a certified university. Architecture, engineering, veterinary medicine and law requires 5 year-degrees. Students who hold a four-year bachelor’s degree or a five-year professional diploma qualify for admission into graduate school. Graduate master’s degree are normally awarded following the completion of a two-year program requiring satisfactory performance in a minimum number of advanced graduate courses, plus the submission by the degree candidate of a master’s thesis. CULTURE OF BRAZIL The Brazilian culture results from a mixture of European, Amerindian, African and Asian cultures.

Not only do most Brazilians have ancestors from various parts of the world, their customs and rituals have blended into a new culture that is typically Brazilian. At nowadays, the level of mixture is that high that cultural differences exist mainly between regions. The Brazilian cuisine is versatile. The Brazilians blended ingredients and recipes from various continents long before Europeans and North-Americans spoke about “fusion kitchen”. Especially the cuisines of Italy and Africa have had a profound influence. Sports are an important part of the Brazilian society. Mosts sports are practised in the entire country but football is by far the most popular sport in Brazil.

The larger towns have usually more than one professional football club. Brazilians who know each other are generally able to tell exactly what club the other person supports. Although football is mainly practised by men, the most fanatic supporters are often women. A sport which is typically Brazilian is capoeira . This is a combination of martial arts and dancing. It originates from the Northeast of Brazil. Brazil has a very rich music tradition. The Brazilian music originates from mixing the styles of European colonists with the styles of African slaves. The Amerindians have had a smaller influence on Brazilian music. Samba is famous throughout the world. Bossa Nova is well-known among jazz enthusiasts.

Nevertheless, the Brazilian music does not get the international attention to which it is entitled. Who learns more about Brazilian music, discovers a new world of sounds, styles and rhythms varying from classical music to hiphop-like styles. Cultural Policy The Ministry of Culture was established by a Government Decree (91144, 15 March 1985), as a separate body from the former Ministry of Education and Culture. It formulates policies on the arts, libraries, museums and national heritage. Funding for culture is achieved through Government budgetary resources and tax incentives aimed at promoting culture support for the arts by the business sector. Brazilian cultural policies aim to: broaden public access to cultural activity and resources; •preserve objects of cultural patrimony; •set guidelines for export licensing of cultural goods; •promote people’s cultural inclusion and development through funding and planning of special projects; •Promote the celebration of notable dates and festivals. The Ministry of Culture has been cooperating with UNESCO and working in partnership with Brazilian civil society and businesses to implement policies aimed at the management of funding of projects and preservation of cultural heritage. Four major areas contemplated by such policies are: •Dissemination of national symbols, history and folklore. National Policy for Museums – sets guidelines for the establishment of a database of museums and for a programme to support research and development in museology. •Identity and Diversity – sets guidelines for funding for projects that celebrate cultural diversity (Funarte and Fundacao Cultural Palmares have been key government players in its discussion and implementation). •Promoting reading, book publishing and supporting libraries. FOOTBALL IN BRAZIL They are the most successful national team in the history of the World Cup, with five championships (1958, 1962, 1970, 1994, 2002). A common quip about football is “The English invented it, the Brazilian perfected it. It is generally considered to be the strongest national football team in the world and is the only one that has played in every World Cup. Brazilians call national football team as “seleca? o”. It means “selected”. A popular nickname of the team is “Canarinho” which means “little canary”, referring to the yellow shirt. Pele, one of the world’s most recognized players, led Brazil to two of those championships and is the top scorer of all time in the sport. . The current holder of the title of best football player in the world, according to FIFA, is Ronaldinho, who won the FIFA World Player of the Year prize in 2004 and 2005. Also world’s biggest stadium, “Maracana? “, is in Brasil, in Rio de Janeiro. The history of Maracana is, initially, the history of the World cup of 1950.

Indeed, the competition, started again by Jules Rimet in 1946 after a total stop of the activities of FIFA during the Second World War, was organized that year in Brazil, the only applicant country to the event, in a bloodthirsty world. In that occasion, the Brazilian State decided to construct a gigantic stadium, imagined by the architects Raphael Galvao and Pedro Paulo Bernardes Bastos, the world’s largest stadium, and for a long time, considered capable to accomodate 200. 000 peo