Freedom – Term Paper

Contribution of the mississippi freedom summer project towards the Emancipation of the African-American Community

The Mississippi Freedom Summer Project, which was driven by the National Council of Churches and the Council of Federated Organizations, had far-reaching impacts on the Emancipation of the African-American Community . This came about after the organizations collectively recruited more than 1,000 White and African American college students, mostly from the North, to take part in the summer drive . 

The Mississippi Freedom Summer Project led to the greater prohibition of discrimination against African American applicants.  A circuit clerk, as well as voter registrar, was put under injunction for refusing to register African American voters. A suit at the Justice Department also revealed that because of discrimination, only 1.1 percent, or 121 African Americans that were eligible to vote were registered as voters in 1962 . There was a clear perspective that while denying African-Americans the right to vote was indefensible, as well as shameful it was cynical that the college students were in the best position to correct the wrongs. Such a perspective drove many adults to participate in the campaign . 

The Mississippi Freedom Summer Project contributed to the greater emancipation of African-American community through education. The drive toward Summer Project intensified the need for the Whites to volunteer in providing African Americans with education. On the other hand, the African Americans found the courage to attend “freedom” school. When three young civil rights workers disappeared in Mississippi, hundreds of northern college students volunteered to teach in “Freedom” schools to assist the Negroes to register as voters. Several civil rights organizations, with the help of National Council of Churches, had organized the campaign. The provision of literacy classes by these groups of students led to greater enlightenment among the African Americans. More whites saw the need to respect civil rights, despite fears that the department would not guarantee to protect them in the event of a riot. In fact, it was observed that hundreds of students from northern colleges were vulnerable to injury and even death. Consequently, there was great anxiety among the public, both the whites and blacks, that the Summer Project, which was driven by volunteer college students had a potential to lead to severe violence. This caught the attention of other White Americans who feared for their safety to join in the campaign .

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Prohibition of discrimination against African American 

The Summer Project led to the establishment of state commission mandated with protecting African Americans from segregation. This came about after the state of Mississippi received global attention after three black students were lynched for participating in the Summer Movement. The students were active participants in organization protests against black segregation at the Tougaloo College. This caused the Sovereign Commission to be brought in to participate in emancipating African Americans by acting as the “segregation watchdog” in Mississippi. The Commission was particularly instrumental in changing the White American’s perspectives towards black emancipation. It prepared an official reporting highlighting the extent of black segregation and secret movements intended to counter civil rights movements .

Mississippi Freedom Summer Project contributed to the signing of the civil rights bill, which sought the help of the government in facilitating registration of African Americans to vote. In fact, it is observed that the State of Mississippi started to be questioned on what it should do to ensure law and order. The Federal Government also started to be questioned over the role it should play to bring law and order to Mississippi . In fact, the segregation in the South to be viewed as a general public affair, as many American citizens, whether Whites or Blacks, saw a need to join hands to curb the racist codes that dominated America. The Summer Project made it difficult for the White supremacy activists, especially the Mississippi state officials, to differentiate or separate the Whites from the blacks who may attack them. Indeed, this made it difficult for the state’s strategy of containment intended to arrest black protestors to work . There was great anxiety among the public, both the whites and blacks, that the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project that was driven by volunteer college students had a potential to lead to severe violence. To address the impending threat, as white residents were significantly urged to disregard the civil rights activities.  However, this had an expected result for the state of Mississippi, and its racial codes started to be considered irrational by many Whites. In fact, the new laws enacted to authorize state officials to deal violently with the civil rights movements and to forbid picketing began to be widely criticized by the public, as even the White college students would be exposed to injury and death .  In fact, it is noted that while many black people seemed to cower from participating in the Summer Project, Whites appears to be more motivated to participate in the movement, showing a change in a pattern where many Whites did not support black civil rights movements. There were fears that because of this emerging pattern, a white mob would form with an intention to drive greater emancipation of the African American Community .

In conclusion, the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project led to the greater prohibition of discrimination against African American applicants.  It also led to the establishment of state commission mandated with protecting African Americans from segregation.  Additionally, it contributed to the signing of the civil rights bill, which sought the help of the government in facilitating registration of African Americans to vote.


Anon, “Racial Crisis,” New York Times, Jun 28, 1964

Anon, “The New Invasion Of Mississippi,” Chicago Tribune, Jun 25, 1964, pg. 20.

Anon. “Youth Corps in Mississippi: Young Workers the Campaign,” New York Times, Jul 5, 1964, pg. SM6

Rugabers, Walter, “Mississippi Agency Tells of Fight on Rights Drive,” New York Times,  Jul 29, 1968, pg. 16

Sitton, Claude, “Mississippi Is Gripped by Fear Of Violence in Civil Rights Drive,” The New York Times, May 30, 1964

Sitton, Claude, “Mississippi Town Fears New Strife: Canton Expects Negro Voter Drive To Bring,” The New York Times, 1923, pg. 54.

Sitton, Claude, “South Girds For Crisis: Massive Assault On Racial Barriers Planned,” The New York Times, Jun 14, 1964

The American freedom as one of the most important rights

In the United States of America, freedom is considered as one of the most important rights that a citizen should have. The idea of liberty has been a significant issue in this nation since industrialization, where exceptional individuals had to give up their lives in the fight for freedom. Such people include the great Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, who died in the struggle to fight for freedom. In this nation, most citizens, if not all, agree on the fact that individuals should have all the rights of freedom, which also includes the freedom of expression. Black Americans have also been targeted since industrialization where they have been enslaved and subjected to different forms of torture. However, the concept of freedom has been changing since these periods and are continuing to change in the twenties.

Freedom of contract is one aspect that has changed from industrialization to the twenties. During the industrialization, people had freedom to form contracts, as long as they were legal, without any government interventions. However, nowadays, the government is highly involved in the formation of any contracts due to security measures. Some individuals feel that their freedom is somehow oppressed by this intervention since the government tracks all their moves in doing so. The fourteenth amendment is another area that has seen the concept of freedom change over the past years. As discussed in this essay, slavery was legal during the periods of industrialization, but in the modern age, itts considered as one of the most illegal practices.

Though this concept of freedom has changed over this period, one thing remains in common. Political vocabulary in this nation continues to be centered on freedom. Political experts and other individuals who fight for freedom continue to base their arguments on the fact that the attainment of independence for any nation means that the citizens of that country are free. This includes all the citizens and denying some of the citizens their rights is considered as a violation of this fact. Though disagreements have occurred over the recent years on the concept of freedom, itts fair to say that America is one of the countries where freedom for all individuals is the central idea that is looked into by not only the government but other groups.

The new freedom in American history

The idea of freedom has never been a settled classification or idea. Instead, it has been the subject of the diligent clash in American history. During the periods of industrialization, freedom was only meant for some citizens. Other individuals, most specifically the blacks were not free and could not consider themselves as the people of America. However, the twenties have changed this concept, and all individuals, including the blacks, have the freedom that they once never had. The historical backdrop of American opportunity is a story of level headed discussions, differences, and battles instead of an arrangement of ageless classes or a developmental account toward a predetermined objective. Some people continue to argue that the old days were better and use freedom as an excuse of the various concerns that face the United States of America currently.

The significance of opportunity has been built at all levels of societytin open congressional deliberations and political treatises, as well as on manors and picket lines, in parlors and even in rooms. Freedom is not only centered on the right to live freely as an American citizen but also on other issues such as the freedom to own a gun. During the periods of industrialization, there was the freedom to own such weapons without the need to follow some rules of registration and nearly all individuals had these weapons at their homes. However, it’s difficult to have the freedom of owning a weapon and some citizens argue that this is a freedom that should be considered in this country. Freedom, therefore, continues to change in nearly all aspects, and most political individuals use this to base their arguments when they are competing for different positions in the government.

Though this concept continues to change, one thing should remain in common. Whichever the changes made, they should ensure that all the rights of the American citizens are met, and none of their rights should be denied. A free and fair country is one where everyone can express their feelings on different issues, no matter how critical, such matters might be. Apart from the expression, citizens should also be able to live with complete freedom knowing that they can do anything so long as its legal or go anywhere without anyone asking them questions.