Organizational Design and Structure – Term Paper

Organizational Design and Structure

Question 1

Yes. An outsider can correctly discern the underlying cultural values by analyzing symbols, dress codes and other observable aspects up to 50% in comparison to an insider with several years of experience. An outsider can discern the culture of the organization through analyzing most of the visual symbols and practices that are embedded within the organization. However, an insider is more informed of the underlying cultural values since he is exposed to the informal practices that are practiced within the organization that may not be visible to outsiders. Also, an insider is highly likely to have developed different sets of schemata based on his interactions with colleagues and diverse organizational processes that are not discernible to an outsider (Donaldson & Joffe, 2014).

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However, an outsider can correctly determine at least 50% of the values of an organization by analyzing symbols such as the ceremonies an organization engages in, especially in relation to corporate social responsibility matters. Other symbols such as logos and slogans may reveal the main beliefs and focus of the organization to outsiders thereby facilitating the discernment of the cultural values of the organization.

Question 2

Yes. I do agree with the statement. The pressure for change within an organization emanates from the trading or operating environment. Different happenings in the environment such as disasters, terrorist attacks and even increased competition requires a business to change so as to survive. Other changes such as episodic changes in the environment forces managers to adopt structural and technical changes so as to realign the business to the demands of the market (Daft, 2016).

However, to experience stability, an organization must invest in its internal resources such as employee training to enhance its research and development capabilities. Such efforts ensure there is stability within the organization and the business is well suited to survive the changes occurring in its environment. An organization also ensures its employees are motivated and enthusiastic to perform their roles during the times of change. Such employees are willing to exploit their innovative and creative capabilities to design new organizational processes or technologies to enhance chances of survival within the trading environment. It is during such times that it becomes necessary for the business to develop a new vision and ensure its employees support that vision.

Question 3

Evidence-based management facilitates managers to develop self-awareness of their biases in previous decision-making situations. Such identity is vital in promoting objective decision-making in situations where intuition and experience is being applied. Most of the problems faced by managers are uncertain and they sometimes lack any quality data to guide their decisions. However, by seeking evidence such as analyzing trends using available data, they can generate realistic assumptions and minimize the risks of making poor decisions (Greenwood & Miller, 2010).

It demonstrates that evidence-based management facilitates easier identification of managerial thought processes that minimizes bias and subjectivity when making decisions. Evidence-based management ensures that managers avoid previous errors and oversights in their intuitive activities and is vital to the attainment of positive results. The managers, through the use of evidence-based management can identify areas of weaknesses in their capabilities. Identity of such weaknesses promotes wider consultation or even outsourcing some organizational roles to minimize the risk of poor decisions.            

Question 4

In an organization that is rapidly changing, decisions are more likely to be made using the political model rather than the rational model of organization. A rapidly changing organization is likely to experience more conflicts as different organizational stakeholders realign themselves to current changes. Such conflicts emanate from the inconsistency amongst goals set by such stakeholders. Also, the rapidly changing organization is highly likely to experience decentralized forms of power and control due to the prevalence of shifts in coalitions and the notable influence of interest groups within such an organization (Helfat & Karim, 2014).

In the rapidly changing organization, it is also likely that the decision-making processes are disorderly with diverse bargaining platforms amongst different interest groups where each advocates for its agenda. The vicious interplay amongst stakeholders such as employees and shareholders makes the political model suitable as it accommodates the differences of opinion amongst stakeholders.

Also, the political model suits an organization that is rapidly changing since the information channels in such an organization are usually ambiguous and sometimes inaccurate owing to the rivalry and high level conflicts that persist amongst stakeholders.

Question 5

In understanding organizational culture, various biblical implications should be included. The culture of a business relates to the values, norms and beliefs that a stakeholder such as an employee should embrace. However, the culture of an organization may promote conflicts or acting unethically, especially when dealing with rivals. A Christian working in such an organization may be forced by circumstances to align to such immoral acts. However, as the Bible says in Romans 12:2, one should not conform to the acts of this world but should be transformed by the renewal of the mind so as to discern the will of God i.e. what is acceptable and what is not.

Question 6

A biblical worldview should be applied as a guide to choosing the appropriate organizational culture that suits a business. Christians are, therefore, required to ensure that the culture of their organizations conforms to the basic tenets and teachings of the Bible. They must make corrections to any sections of the organizational culture that does not adhere to biblical teachings. Such corrections promote the alignment of the corporate culture with the religious beliefs and values of individuals such that the workplace becomes an extension and a place to practically implement the biblical teachings.

It means that employers should engage in soul-searching and consult widely even with religious leaders since some organizational activities may contravene the basic teachings of the word of God. Such consultations are essential in ensuring the organizational values, beliefs and norms do not contravene the basic teachings of the word of God. It demonstrates the conviction and sincerity of the management of a business to adhere to the basic values such as honesty, trust, and integrity that advocate for justice and fairness in every dealings of the business.

By applying the biblical world view, the business is likely to benefit immensely since it stands a better chance of attracting quality talents and generating positive relationships with the communities it serves. The customers to such a business also become attached to it thereby minimizing any likelihood of switching to competitors. It demonstrates that a business should align to biblical worldviews when designing its cultural values since such values have significant impacts on its long-term success in the market. The values have a tremendous impact on its public image and the preference it commands amongst crucial stakeholders such as customers, financiers and shareholders.             


Daft, R. (2016). Organization Theory & Design (12th ed.). Boston. Cengage Learning.

Donaldson, L. & Joffe, G. (2014). Fit- The Key to Organizational Design. Journal of Organization Design, 3(3): 38-45.

Greenwood, R. & Miller, D. (2010). Tackling Design Anew: Getting Back to the Heart of Organizational Theory. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(4): 78-88.

Helfat, C. & Karim, S. (2014). Fit between Organization Design and Organizational Routines. Journal of Organization Design, 3(2): 18-29.