Biogas is the type of biofuel or the gas which is produced during the microbiological breakdown (anaerobic digestion under the effect of the activity of several types of bacteria) of biological wastes, biomass, solid and liquid wastes at landfills, swamps, sewerage and dumps. Biogas is also produced from the wastes of farming, food industry, effluents and solid domestic wastes (sorted, without inorganic impurities and additives of unnatural origin). So, the technology uses all the local natural resources. The structure of the gas is not stable and depends on the materials which have been used for the production of the biofuel. Very often it is difficult to create the biogas with the definite stable percentage of methane, minor impurities of hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen, aromatic hydrocarbons and halogen-aromatic hydrocarbons.
When one speaks about the physical characteristics of biogas, he should say that it is possesses lower quality than the natural gas; but when biogas is technologically separated, its calorific value is higher than of the natural gas. Biogas is a very important source of energy, especially in the current situation of the shortage of the exhaustible natural resources. From the point of view of environmental protection, biogas is the best solution to the problem, because it is produced from wastes and materials which would not be used anymore. Moreover, the process of production of biogas reduces pollution and littering, because people start gathering domestic and industrial wastes for the further usage. Finally, biogas solves the problem of the greenhouse effect, because the gases which exist in its structure possess the natural origin and they are not accumulated in the atmosphere.
Biogas is the alternative source of energy which can be used as a surrogate of the natural gas and its use solve numerous ecological issues. The student who is expected to cope with the term paper about the matter should dwell on the analysis of the problem, explanation of the origin and methods of production of biogas, its strong and weak sides and its connection to the environmental problems. The student is able to compare the use of biogas in different countries and try to predict the further development and improvement of the technology of production of biogas from different kinds of wastes.
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