A new paradigm has been emerged in the present industrial sector where a manufacturing organization uses a single process to produce more than one product. This paradigm adds complexity in the simultaneous production of more than one product from a Joint process. Their determination at the cost of such products, individually, hence posses a difficult task to the cost accountant especially because they are of such varied nature characterized by many varieties.
Despite difficulty it is possibly essential to make a fair and equitable allocation of cost to each product nice this is critically important not only for stock valuation and income determination but also increasingly for assessment of excise duty, transfer pricing etc, and also for divisional profitability etc. This study concentrates to explore the area not so much conceptually, but more as a practical guide to illustrate some of the methods adopted in practice by the manufactures’.
The methods fall under two broad categories a) Market value basis and b) Physical measurement basis. The market value basis adopts the accepted cost concept of what the product can bear while the physical measurement basis is based on physical measures as weight, illume etc. Literature survey has highlighted certain other methods as techno commercial factor evaluation basis and input based cost driver basis. Robert Kaplan and Antonym Atkinson have given an illustration as how the Joint and by-products costing method can be used as a tool in the resource allocation process.
The paper aims to generate further discussion, with illustration from more industries to help formulate proper guidelines on this complex issue of Joint and by-product costing. 2. 0: Acknowledgement Going through various sources of information we arrived at the generally accepted cost accounting practices where the vital inputs on concepts along with practical examples were compiled from the articles and textbooks of reputed authors as stated in the references.
We are grateful to Tanzania Hues, Assistant Professor, department of Accounting & Information Systems, who germinated the idea of bringing out such a special paper on Joint Product and By-product Costing. We would like to convey our heartiest gratitude to the entire information provider for their valuable suggestions, information and contributions that have helped us much in preparing this report. 3. : Origin of the report In case of identifying, allocating and apportioning common costs to several products or output services the multi-product or multi-process and multi service industries always face an uncertainty.
The final product or service cost will reflect the full cost only if these common costs are allocated or apportioned in some way to the individual final product. In the case of process industries, where the process flow is common up to a stage and then segregates into two or more process lines to produce more than one product then the problem of allocation or apportionment of common r Joint cost becomes significant.
The essence of Joint product or by-product costing lays in the allocation or apportionment of Joint processing cost to the individual products in as equitable a manner as possible. Although the allocation or apportionment of Joint costs to determine the full cost of individual products may not be of much help from the point of view of management decision-making, it is very much essential for external financial reporting, reporting under various statutory requirements, valuation for tax legislation and also for valuation of inventories for horn period profit determination.
The phenomenon of a production process, producing simultaneously, more than one product could be observed in a wide variety of industries, For example: Coal mining washing and Coke production resulting in the production of Coal, Coke, Gas, Tar and Ammonia. Petroleum refining resulting in the production of Petrol, Kerosene, Diesel, Furnace oil etc. In this industry a very large number of Joint and byproducts occur in cracking or refining crude oil.
Agricultural Product industries such as vegetable oil – crushing of oil seeds resulting in production of oil and cake. From the process of refining oil, soap stock arises which could be further processed into soap and allied products. In Milk industry, the three joint products are Cream, Liquid Milk and Skim. The cream is again processed into Butter and ghee. The liquid milk and skim is processed to produce whole milk, full cream milk and standard milk. 3. : Purpose of the report The objectives of this term paper is to identify the principles to be followed in the recognition of products as Joint product or by-products and to prescribe some generally accepted methods to determine more accurate and reliable cost of ND uniform basis to provide better transparency in the ascertaining the cost of Joint and by-products. The ascertainment of the cost of Joint products and by-product can be used for the following purposes: (I) Uniform basis of Valuation of manufactured products, Work -in-process and intermediate products.
For assessment of excise duty and other value based taxes relating to Joint products and by-products. (iii) Assessment of value of specific products under various measures such as anti- dumping, transfer pricing etc. , (v) Determining the value and responding to regulatory authorities for Joint products or services. V) Measuring product performance and internal reporting for segment profitability. 3. 3: Methodology: In order to prepare this term paper we have applied our classroom knowledge as well as taken help from different writer’s books preferably from the book of Cost Accounting by Charles T. Horned et al.
This term paper also comprises the combined effort of all group members. We have tried to present the concept of Joint production cost in variety of organizational situation and how this cost can be allocated to different products from the Joint production process. Along with Joint cost ND it’s allocation we have also tried to present how the by product from a production process can be recognized and presented in the financial statements specially in the income statement of the company. 3. 4: Limitation of the Paper The report may encounter the shortcomings due to the following reasons: Lack of practical knowledge to link up with theories.
Probability of skipping any material items. Dependency on the secondary information. Time constraints 3. 5: Terminology used in the term paper Joint-products: Two or more product that have high total sales value compared with he total sales values of other products yielded by Joint production process (Horned) or in other words -Two or more products separated in the course of processing, each having a sufficiently high sellable value to merit recognition as a main product. Example: Ethylene and Propylene arising from the cracking of Naphtha.
By-product: A product, which is secondary to the main product and obtained during the course of manufacture of recognized main product. It is called a by-product because of the relatively lower importance it has as compared with the main product or products. By-product cost is commonly regarded as difficult to determine. By-product is usually subjected to further processing after separation from the main product, if such processing will increase the value added or promote the sale of the main product. For example, in a Petroleum Refinery, gas was earlier considered as a by-product.
Now, it has assumed importance like petrol, diesel, etc. And it is being treated as a Joint product. Scrap: Residual material left over when making a product. Waste: “Discarded substances having no significant value (as distinct from scrap)”- ECMA. Joint Cost: Joint cost are defined as common cost of facilities or services employed in the output of two or more simultaneously produced or otherwise closely related operations, commodities or service. Split off point: The point in the common production process at which the separate products are identifiable.
There may be process and the total numbers of products that emerge from the process. 4. 0: Body of the report 4. 1: The nature of Joint Product 4. 1. 1 . Fixed and variable proportions Although Joint products have a definite quantitative relationship to each other, this relationship may take different forms. The nature of the Joint products output can either be in fixed or variable proportions. The relationship between the products is fixed if an increase in the output of one product of a group results in a proportionate increase in the output of the other products.
In contrast, if the increase in output of one product results in either a decrease or has no effect on the output of one or more of the remaining products then the relationship between the outputs is one of variable proportions. This variation in output proportions may only be controlled within certain limits and only arises in certain processes. 4. 1. 2. Intermediate and final products: Joint products arise from a common process or series of processes, the latter giving rise to intermediate products.
Intermediate products can be defined as those products to be further treated and processed to produce main product, where the main products in a multi-purpose operation may take the form of intermediate products at a certain stages of production and finished products at the final stage of production. 4. 1. 3. Joint and Separation costs: The fundamental feature of Joint product is that they incur Joint cost up to a certain stage of production, known as the split off point, where they become recognizable as operate products.
The costs incurred in the Joint process cannot be separately traced to the individual product output Subsequent to the split-off point any cost incurred e. G. The additional processing costs, can be identified with specific products and may be termed separable or attributable cost. For a cost to be separable, it must be possible to trace it with reasonable certainty to a single product. 4. 2. Joint Product & By-product costing principles 4. 2. 1 .
There are two basic approaches to costing of Joint product and by-products, which are given below: Joint Product Approach: Under this approach, more than one reduce is treated as Joint product and the Joint processing costs are allocated between the products on an appropriate basis. Main Product / By-product Approach: Under this approach, only one product will be given the status of a main product and all other products arising from the process will be treated as by-products. In this method, the Joint costs are not allocated between the products instead; the net revenue (sales value less further processing expenses, selling expenses, etc. F any) generated from the products is credited to the Joint costs and the remaining Joint cost is totally absorbed by the main product. . 2. 2. Recognition off product as Joint product or by-product: There are no hard and fast rules to determine whether a product is a Joint product or by-product. Normally, products which are incidental to the production of main products and products which are insignificant in value product changes from by-product to main product or vice versa due to a number of factors like changes in market price, competition, demand or technology may suggest a re-classification.
Therefore, the classification between the main product and by- product has to be reviewed continuously. 4. 2. 3. Identification of Joint and By- Products: Recognition of Joint products and by-products is purely by relative commercial values. Further, such relative values are not permanent as their relative importance of Joint and by-products is evanescent in nature, as can be seen by the following two examples. In the sugar industry, till about four decades back, press mud was Just a waste product of nuisance value, that needed continuous disposal at additional costs or else it will create contamination.
Subsequently, through research, it was found that the press mud contained rich nutrients which stimulate plant growth, as a result f which it became a commercially valuable product. 4. 3. Methods of Apportionment of Joint Costs: The generally accepted cost apportionment methods are of two principal types. They are broadly, Market Value Bases: Bases assumed to measure the ability to absorb joint costs, where the resulting product costs are related to some market value of the products.
Under this method, Joint cost allocations are made based on the individual product’s ability to absorb, as indicated by the sales prices. While choosing a selling price, it is important to choose a representative period considering the normal cycle f fluctuations. Such a representative figure may be the daily average of the past month or quarterly average as may be appropriate. In case the products are sold to different markets, the adjusted market value, eliminating freight and brokerage or commission elements or any other cost is to be taken.
Horned rightly points out that market based measure are difficult to use in the context of rate regulation. “It is circular reasoning to use selling process as a basis for selling prices (rates) and at the same time use selling prices to allocate the cost on which prices (rates) are based. To void this circular reasoning the physical measures method may be used in rate regulation environment”. Physical Unit Bases: Where individual products are from a common input, and none of the products, can be categorized as a by-product, this method is followed.
Under this method, the Joint costs are allocated to individual products on some physical measurement basis, biz. Weight, volume, or some other common unit used to measure output. (Egg: calorific content. ) This method is suitable under circumstances where the units of measurement of the final products are the same or capable of being measured in similar units. In industries where Joint products emerge in different physical state and are therefore measured in differing physical units, a problem arise in establishing a common denominator.
However, even in case where the outputs emerges as solids, liquids and gases, a common unit or physical co-efficient such as weight, can normally be found as a conversion factor (the weight of a gas is calculated given the volume, temperature and pressure). Another form of physical unit basis is the weighted average method based on pre- determined standards. Some technical estimation is used to reduce all output to a moon denominator. The weights may possibly be based on size of units, time consumed in making them, material consumption etc. The actual numbers of output the Joint cost apportionment is based.
Cost drivers as a base: The development and implementation of Activity Based Costing in many enterprises have made available cost drivers, as an integral part of the Cost Management System. Therefore, the cost drivers can be used as a logical basis for cost allocation. 4. 4. Market value basis 4. 4. 1 . Apportionment of Joint cost on the basis of sales value: The apportionment of mint costs on the basis sales value of the products will be followed when no other rational basis for apportionment of Joint cost is available and the Joint products are sold without any further processing at split off point.