The Pre-columbian American Peoples in the Pacific Northwest – Term Paper

At the time when the Europeans were on a mission to colonize America, the people of America had a resilient culture. It has been stated that the resilient culture must have resulted from the longtime interaction with their environment. Most aspects of culture are attributed to the environment in such a way that people develop norms or modes of behavior that rhyme with their immediate environment. The longer the people remain in a less dynamic environment, the more resilient a culture is bound to be. The cultural influences identified in the article authored by Kisciza include networks and the trading networks. Routine interaction with the environment is an important factor that ensures the people enhance intimacy with the environment. Ethnicity has been identified as a primary factor that divided the people of America and this also reflected in specific aspects of culture.

What is One Example of Cultural Exchange during the Settlement of North America

The European who visited America in the Pre-Hispanic period did not appreciate the cultural practices of the natives. European explorers often mistook the native cultural practice with naivety rather than nativity. It was further documented that the natives gradually adopted the influences brought by the Europeans. This marked a gradual erosion of the native culture as well as the adoption of a new culture. When the Europeans settled in America, their persistence ensured that the cultural resilience of the nativeswas broken. For instance, the settlement of the European missionaries and explorer was responsible for the penetration of reading and writing in America. The entrance of the Europeans was faced with resistance due to cultural resilience among the native societies.

However, the interaction of the Europeans and the natives had different outcomes depending on aspects such as ethnicity. Various cultural orientations have a different perception when it comes to adoption of different cultures. Equally, cultures might have varying degrees of resilience in assimilating new cultures. The Native American societies must have exhibited similar traits as they responded differently to the interactions with the Europeans. The difference in the outcomes of the interactions between the natives and the Europeans was also due to the different approaches used by the Europeans. European countries also had different cultures which imply that the application of their rule in Native America was also different. Some Europeans assimilated the natives in their settlement hence the natives had to learn and live the European way. Possibly this was the most effective way of overcoming cultural resilience among the natives. On the other hand, other Europeans used force against the natives, which included eviction. To some extent, such forces must have contributed to the toughening of native cultural resilience.

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Another form of cultural resilience that can be identified in the article is the resistance exhibited by the Europeans (Kicza). When the early European settlers went to America, they traveled along with their culture. They were determined to break the resilience of the native culture but at the same time remained persistent to their culture. The Europeans were reported to have used all means to ensure that the native culture was eroded at the expense of the European culture. The situation proves that cultural resilience is a factor of cultural appreciation. In some way, it can also be termed as cultural ego where people of a particular culture recognize their culture as the best and irreplaceable. The Native Americans did not have the same cultural belief thus their resilience gradually broke down.


Kicza, J. E. (n.d.). Resilient Cultures.