2.1. Strategies for learning vocabulary presentation
The discovery that researchers and teachers have made is that determining the best teaching programmes is the only way to guarantee efficient language learning by students. Also, based on the same learning strategy, students exhibit disparities in achieving the success in learning; apparently, some students have better learning capabilities than fellow students. Cooperation between students and their teachers is necessary since learning is indeed a two-way interaction. Therefore, these learning programs seem to be initiated by two interlinked concepts that include acquiring a new language and mental processes. The literature review presented below aims to discuss the strategies of language learning, experiences and perception of learner’s independent vocabulary learning and understanding their self-esteem in regards to these language learning frameworks.
2.2. Vocabulary knowledge
In his work, Luu Trong Tuan (2011) indicates that vocabulary is a module that establishes a connection between the capabilities of listening, writing, speaking and reading, and therefore, learners have the ability to use the four skills to learn a language (Schmitt, 2010). Tuan (2011) explains further that vocabulary gets relevant to a learner in the sense that it develops the competence of a dialect or rather indicates mastery of a language due to the increased vocabulary in a student’s language. However, vocabulary knowledge has been a challenge to students and thus, prompted much attention to the lexicon in research or second language learning (Kalajahi & Pourshahian, 2012).
Mostly, Teng Feng (2015) proposes that mastery of words is a gradual process that comprises of some sub-phases, whereby one of the phases is focused on lexical introduction. For example, lexical knowledge can be improved and perfected, and this is what is missing in among English language learners. That is to mean that, the reduced cover of vocabulary creates a barrier for students to participate in a comprehensive reading course, and subsequently, require intervention to develop a rich vocabulary (Feng, 2015). Nevertheless, Tuan (2011) adds that their amount of lexicon words available to students is a lot to be mastered all at once within teaching time. Besides, there is a high demand for autonomous and responsibility from students.
Therefore, with the evolution of policies of language (LLS) researchers have made efforts to relate these actions plans with capabilities of language learning with the agenda to improve the learning of vocabulary (Kalahaji & Pourshahan, 2012). Also, there are claims that majority of the concept of language are applied for the accomplishment of activities in learning vocabulary. It is important then to establish strategies for vocabulary learning (VLS) that are components of the general language learning concepts, and they have a positive impact on learning the language successfully (Schmitt, 2010).
According to Nation (2005), it is the significant approach that learners initiate personal VLS by sensitization to the programs of vocabulary, the reflection of appropriate learning procedures and motivation of intellectual mastery of the dictionary. Besides, that acquiring a second language is fundamentally dependent on the potential advancement of vocabulary, and this sub-discipline, the previous literature indicates there is more emphasis on learners of a second language to have their knowledge in vocabulary optimised (Schmitt, 2000).
Moreover, acquisition of vocabulary has two key frameworks as proposed by Teng (2015) and these include deliberate learning and secondary learning. A review of the literature shows as in the case of Paribakht and Wesche (1997) that conscious vocabulary mastery has been reinforced because it was a more efficient approach compared to subsidiary learning of vocabulary. However, due to the short time allocation of class sessions for the intended and straightforward teaching of the word by word, research indicates that secondary mastery of vocabulary has been a better option. Primarily, incidental learning comes as a “by-product” during education undertakings (Hulstijn, 2001), and thus, considerably, when students make an effort to comprehend the meaning of the subject, then vocabularies are acquired subconsciously (Teng, 2015).
Many authors seem to agree that most of the studies conducted on the implications of important reading are linked to secondary learning of vocabulary (Horst, 2005; Webb, 2008). Notwithstanding, an incidental gain of a lexicon is restricted as discussed by Teng (2014b) and consequently, other components that influence the gain of vocabulary have been brought forward, for example, understanding of topics, the degree of acquisition, strategies and allocated time for learning (Teng, 2015).
2.3. Strategies of Vocabulary Learning (VLS)
The strategies of vocabulary studies have a general definition that is activities pursued by students of language so as to facilitate learning of lexicon items in a particular language of concern. Nevertheless, there is room to modify the definition above that it becomes comprehensive as a significance of the present research. Furthermore, a general description from the previous literature shows that VLS can be understood for various aspects, for example, VLS can be regarded as any undertaking operated by the learner to support the progress in their studies. Secondly, a concept of vocabulary action plans could be associated with specific deeds that enhance the expertise of studying dictionaries. Thirdly, a vocabulary learning concept might be linked to rational activities undergone by the student so as to allow the learning of vocabularies. Therefore, to verify the learners’ activities as VLS, these activities should meet the standards of the general criteria.
According to Nation (2001), VLS can be evaluated as worth teachable if they meet the outlined list as follows:
VLS students should exercise choice considering the fact that there are many concepts to select from
The strategies are also compound including more stages of learning
The students applying any theory need to be knowledgeable and with a reward
The strategies should also accelerate the learning process as well as its use.
In essence, the literature review shows that the efforts to categorize VLS and other groups have been an ongoing effort, but although, these concepts have different developers, there are some similarities between the elements. In literal, Schmitt’s (1997) uses two classifications for grouping concepts as VLS. These include Discovery concept which is concerned with revealing the meaning of new words, whereas, consolidation action plan, assists learners of the language to memorize and recall the explanation of different words, including their spellings. Other more approaches include Cognitive, memory, social concept and metacognitive.
2.3.1. The location to study programs for vocabulary gain
The upskill of vocabulary is a process that involves activities in small proportions (Gu, 2003). According to Gu (2003), metacognitive reasoning, preference, and implementation of concepts for learning vocabulary are the key phases that require among other things, lexicon explanations, use of a dictionary, automatic repetition, writing of notes, etc. Furthermore, for a single strategy employed by the students, it investigates the degree of progress of learning and understanding (Gu, 2003).
A review of literature from various authors has shown that vocabulary studies can be improved in under a learner’s attention which gets shifted to strategies of vocabulary (Nation, 2001). Schmitt’s (1997) has revealed that students reported more operations of concepts for vocabulary mastery far much better compared to any additional task such as verbal performance, listening awareness, and social interactions.