Theory/Conceptual Model Paper by Quantitative Research – Term Paper

David Trouilloud and Jennifer Regnier’s study evaluates the impact of a therapeutic education program on perceived competence, self-management behaviors, and glycaemic control. The participants targeted by the three-day program were adults with type 2 diabetes. The study describes the conceptual model along with its key components. The HBM model is rooted in the understanding that an individual will take health-related actions if he or she feels that the action can help avoid negative health condition (Trouilloud & Regnier, 2013). An individual may also take such action if he or she believes that a positive outcome will result from it and successfully avoid the danger of a harmful health condition. Several health care agencies use the model to explore a wide range of short-term and long-term health behaviors. In particular, HBM has been used to explore transmission of sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviors. 

The conceptual model used is appropriate for the research problem being investigated. Study participants often assessed themselves to establish the likelihood of getting the given health condition. Younger participants seem too hesitant to take the necessary precautionary measures if they learn that condition mainly afflicts older people, and vice versa. Also, most participants exhibited different levels of perceived severity, if they were infected or affected by the said condition (Trouilloud & Regnier, 2013). In particular, participants were concerned about perceived severity levels such as pain, disablement, and death. Similarly, participants were greatly concerned about the perceived benefits of the proposed action in attempting to mitigate the harsh effects or severe consequences of the condition. Not only does the article describe personal risk analysis but also evaluate proposed solution. It also offers a valuable structure for myriad belief-change solutions in an attempt to address health beliefs. 

The conceptual model further guides the study’s variable description, design, analysis, and results. The results prove that therapeutic education is a powerful healthcare intervention in an attempt to improve health status and lifestyle of people with type 2 diabetes. The education program employed in this study generated positive changes adherence to physical activity and glycaemic control. The intervention positively impacted the perceived competence of participants toward physical activity and diet (Trouilloud & Regnier, 2013). Therapeutic patient education is often implemented to help people with diabetes modify their lifestyle and self-management behaviors. 

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Bayat et al. (2013) focuses on diabetes mellitus, a growing health problem affecting millions of people around the world. In particular, the study assessed the effectiveness of educational intervention anchored in extended health belief model specifically on type2 diabetic patients. The study clearly describes the theory as well as its key features. Some of these constructs/components include perceived susceptibility, perceived intensity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy.       

Since the study shows important tenets and features of beliefs, behaviors and actions, its theoretical model will be appropriate for the problem being investigated (Bayat et al., 2013). The educational program had positively impacted the extended health belief constructs. The authors have applied the model to both the subject population and health behaviors. The model was particularly critical for analyzing preventive health behaviors and avoiding associated health risks. The article adheres to the fundamental constructs depicting the net benefits and perceived threat. Also, the study examines the perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and perceived severity. Participants had varied opinions about chances of getting the health condition, the severity and possible consequences, and the psychological and tangible costs of the condition. The model has been used to show causal connections/linkages between constructs and many other related factors. For instance, the model shows that the perceived threat from a negative health condition affects the likelihood of behavior change (Nursing Theories, 2012). Perceived seriousness and susceptibility, and cues to action impact perceived threat. General factors affecting attitudes and beliefs of individuals such as personality, intelligence, age, sex, and race appear to affect perceived threat, perceived benefits, and perceived susceptibility.  

Lastly, the conceptual model of the study guides its variable description, design, analysis, and outcomes. Type II diabetes and various complications associated with it impose a heavy economic burden on health care systems. 12o patients with type II diabetes, randomly selected from hospitals, were enrolled in the educational intervention study. They were divided into two distinct groups – intervention and control (Bayat et al., 2013). A questionnaire was used to collect data, including constructs of the extended health belief model and demographic information. The results highlight the importance and implications of education based on the constructs of the extended health belief model. The education system helps to improve the model constructs and increase self-efficacy among patients with type II diabetes. 

In conclusion, the Health Belief Model offers a practical framework that not only provides direct help but also inspires rational thinking and informed health decisions in relation to diabetes type II. Both articles attempt to analyze the perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and potential barriers to taking the proposed action. These sub-variables are key components of the HBM model and seek to show the value or unassailability of the health-related actions. They have helped researchers of both studies to measure the attitudes of participants and persuade them to act or operate in healthy ways.    


Bayat, F., Shojaeezadeh, D., Baikpour, M., Heshmat, R., Baikpour, M., & Hossein, M. (2013),“The effects of education based on extended health belief model in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized controlled trial, Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders Vol. 12, Issue 45, 1-6. 

Nursing Theories. (2012), Application of Health Belief Model, link:  

Trouilloud, D. & Regnier, J. (2013), “Therapeutic education among adults with type 2 diabetes: effects of a three-day intervention on perceived competence, self-management behaviors and glycaemic control,” Global Health Promotion, Vol. 20 Supp. 2: 94-98.