A disease is a disorder – Term Paper


          A disease is a disorder in a human being that produces symptoms and affects some parts of their body. Diseases can be of microbial origin or non-microbial origin. Pathogens are the microbes that cause illnesses. Bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi cause microbial ailments while nervous system disorders, chemicals, traumatic injury or psychological stress cause non-microbial diseases. The paper discusses smallpox as a microbial infection and breast cancer as a non-microbial sickness. Individuals should take precautionary measures to prevent diseases. 

Microbial disease – Smallpox

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            Smallpox is a contagious disease and life-threatening infection. The virus that causes the diseases goes to the respiratory system in the mucous membranes and passes to the lymph nodes. Breman & Henderson (2002) affirm that in a period of four to fourteen days, the virus multiplies in the reticuloendothelial system. Afterward, the virus enters the prodromal phase, which infects the mucous and pharynx membranes. Then, it affects the capillary epithelium of the dermal layer of the skin and causes abrasions. The authors assert that the virus affects the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes.  


            Over the years, cases of smallpox have been minimal. In fact, Breman & Henderson (2002) articulate that the past incident of prevalent smallpox transpired in 1977 in Somalia and its extermination took place in 1980. The authors articulate that the virus that results in smallpox has only been in laboratories. As they explain, a past event of smallpox was in 1978 in the UK because of an infection picked up in the laboratory. Breman & Henderson (2002) avow that the World Health Organization (WHO) had determinations to do away with all the labs that reserved the smallpox virus. However, despite the efforts, the authors claim that people have concerns that the virus still exists and terrorists can use it as weapons.  


            The variola virus causes smallpox. Breman & Henderson (2002) affirm that the virus fits into the Poxviridae family, Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, and orthopoxvirus genre. Besides, Tan, Leong, Ponampalam, Lee, and Goh (2014) articulate that transmission of smallpox occurs through face-to-face contact and aerosols. More so, they mention that infected beddings, secretion, and bodily fluids transmit the disease. Smallpox survives outside human hosts, but ultraviolet light and heat destroy the virus.   

Clinical manifestations

            Some of the clinical indicators include severe headaches, backaches, and a high fever of over 400C. Breman & Henderson (2002) assert that the symptoms occur throughout the prodromal period. The victim then starts to see a rash on their bodies. The authors affirm that the lesions are first visible in the face before they become dominant in other parts of the body. 


            Doctors diagnose smallpox using drug-induced rashes. Breman & Henderson (2002) provide an example of the drug-induced rash as erythema multiforme exudativum (the Stevens–Johnson syndrome), which doctors use to examine the disease. 


            Vaccination is the primary treatment for smallpox in the early stages. In severe cases, doctors recommend daily rinsing of the eye. Again, in cases where many patients exist, isolation is the best treatment to avoid its spread. 

Non-microbial disease – Breast Cancer


            Breast cancer is a lump that grows in the breast cells. The type of cancer can arise from damage to the DNA and genetic mutations. The immune system always destroys the damaged DNA. Dr. Mandal (2013) articulates that the exposure to estrogen and mediators that take place between stromal and epithelial cells leads to breast cancer. 


            Over the years, many women across the world continue to suffer and die from breast cancer. The breast cancer organization (2016) indicates that one in eight women (12%) is likely to develop breast cancer over the course of their lifetime in the US. The organization notes that the death rates for breast cancer have reduced since 1989, but 40,450 women in the US are likely to die from breast cancer in 2016. Besides, the organization points out that an African American woman tends to have breast cancer compared to whites. 


            Research indicates that the causes of breast cancer are still unclear. However, all the public knows about its etiology are the primary risk factors. Dr. Mandal (2013) asserts that people with a family history of ovarian or breast cancer are likely to have breast cancer. More so, doctors diagnose most people over 50 years with breast cancer. Besides, the breast cancer organization (2016) point out that a female who has a relative such as a daughter, sister or mother with breast cancer doubles their risk of cancer.  

Clinical manifestations

            Some of the symptoms of cancer include pain in the breasts or nipples and thickening of the breast or nipple. Other symptoms include redness, scaliness, nipple discharge other than breast milk, and swelling of all parts of the breast.  


            The common diagnosis utilized by radiologists to detect cancer in the breasts is by the use of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, breast biopsy, and a mammography. Mammography is a technique incorporated by x-rays to locate breast tumors. Moreover, the MRI produces high-resolution images of the breast tumors. Breast biopsy involves the removal of breast tissues for lab testing. Nounou, EIAmrawy, Ahmed, Abdelrauf, Goda, and Qhattal (2015) articulate that an MRI scan can detect the likelihood of breast cancer in the early stages. The authors assert that the frequent use of a mammography poses a radiation risk compared to the magnetic resonance imaging. 


            Breast cancer treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and endocrine therapy. Nounou et al. (2015) uphold that surgery is the best to remove breast tumors. Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer using drugs or cytotoxic. Radiation therapy exposes the cancer cells to higher levels of radiation. Endocrine therapy blocks or balances hormones. 


            In summary, in all types of ailments, prevention is always better than cure. The paper presents the descriptions of smallpox and cancer illnesses. Overall, Individuals should take precautionary measures to prevent diseases. 


Breast Cancer Organization. (2016). U.S Breast Cancer Statistics. Retrieved from 


Breman, G, J., & Henderson, D, A. (2002). Diagnosis and Management of Smallpox. The New

            England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, pp 1300 – 1308. 

Dr. Mandal, A. (2013). Breast Cancer Pathophysiology. Retrieved from http://www.news


Nounou, M.,  EIAmrawy, F., Ahmed, N., Abdelrauf, K., Goda, S., and Qhattal, H. (2015). Breast

Cancer: Conventional Diagnosis and Treatment Modalities and Recent Patents and Technologies. Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research, vol. 9 (S2), 17–34

Tan, H, H., Leong, M., Ponampalam, P., Lee, Y, C., and Goh J. (2014). Hazmat Medical Life

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