Social Psychology Term Paper
Topic 1: Hindsight bias:
I have a family member that played football. He would always doubt his team would win the game. When they won he said he knew they would win the game. When they lost he said he knew they would lose the game. When they won he explained advantages they had over the other team. When they lost he explained disadvantages there team had. I believe that this is a good example of hindsight bias. He went into playing the game with excuses and after the game he knew it all along whether they would win or lose.
Expert interview: She has experienced hind sight bias. She has done it her self in school and witnessed it while growing up. Her and her friends would cram for test. They were sure they were going to fail. Her roommate knew who was going to pass and who was going to fail after the test was over.
Non-expert interview: She remembered a friend who always knew everything. They would get in trouble in school and she would always know they would after the fact.
Topic 2: Spotlight effect:
(CW) was going on stage to sing. As she was climbing the steps she slipped and ripped apart of her dress. Through out her performance you could see her grapping at her dress. After her performance she believed that the audience could see the spilt in her dress. Even though I did not notice the split until up close, (CW) still believed the audience could see her split. She also believed they paid more attention to her spilt than her singing. This is an example of spotlight effect because she believed people were paying more attention to her split than her singing.
Expert interview: She was able to relate to the spot light affect. She went on to discuss how people have flaws and believe that is what people see when they are looking at them. It can happen one on one as well as in small and large groups. She knew a public speaker for a child advocacy group. This person always felt like there is something on him that people paid attention to. Things could range from a bad hair cut to the wrong shoes. There is always something else that the audience paid attention to.
When she was asked about what she believed the audience paid attention to it was the singing. She believed the singer was paying attention to the ripe because she knew it was there. The ripe was what she was focusing on not the audience.
Non-expert interview: She was also able to relate to this situation. She knows how it feels to think people can see what is wrong with you. She gets pimples and feels people are paying attention to them. When she walks up to people she does not know she feel the attention is on her pimples.
When she was asked what the audience was paying attention to she said signer also. If it is not a big ripe you can not see it from the audience. It was her mind playing tricks on her.
Topic 3: Illusion of transparency:
I have had an experience when it comes to illusion of transparency. I held a job that I had to speak in front of people that could fire me. I had to come up with ways to cut back on theft in our stores. I was sure everyone new I was nervous and not confident my ideals would work. At the end of the speech people shock my hand as if they where confident in my ideals, even though I was not confident. I believe this is an example because I thought for sure they knew I was not confident in my ideals. I thought they felt what I was thinking my ideas were flowed. They were actual thinking opposite.
Expert interview: She has felt like her emotions could be easily read by others. She tries not to let others know when she is having a bad day.
When asked if she believed to read other peoples emotions she said it is possible. If the emotions are accompanied by physical symptoms it can be read. She used the example of a persons face turning red after embarrassment. She does not believe thoughts could be read without physical symptoms or change in action.
Non-expert interview: She can remember situations where she felt people could read her emotions. If she is having a bad day at work she feels that people could read the frustration on her face. She has had some embarrassments were she felt people could read her emotions. She believes sometimes facial expressions are hard to hide and make it easier for people to read your thoughts.
When she was asked if she beloved emotions could be read she believes it is possible. People can change to let you know what they are feeling.
Topic 4: collectivism:
A good example of collectivism is what are military is doing. They put the United States above personal self. The protection of the U.S. is more important than what they want. They work as a group to attain a certain goal. There are many branches in the military but they all have the same goal.
Expert interview: She believes that preachers are a good example of collectivism. They live their lives leading people to God. Their calling is not individualistic.
She believes that Japanese culture is a good example of collectivism. The Japanese people have long been a collectivist culture, and are very group minded, sociable and place great importance upon the opinion of their peers. The Japanese style of collectivism is based on the ancient traditions.
Non-expert interview: She believes that fire fighters would be appropriate. They spend all their time at the fire house. They give up a lot of their own time and lives to save other people. They believe in sacrifice to save lives. They have the same goal and that is to help prevent fires and put out fires.
When asked about Japan being a collective culture she sated she did not know much about Japanese culture. They could be a mixture of both collectivism and individualistic culture. She could not see a nation working for the same thing without thinking of their needs first.
Topic 5: Planning Fallacy:
I helped friend gather research information. This would have left her more time to work on her report she figured with the extra time she did not have to work on it. This is planning fallacy she did not believe she should get started right away. What ended up happening was she turned it in late. She believed with the research out the way she had more time to write her paper.
Expert interview: She discussed how she underestimates the time it takes to get her paper work finished. So there are some days she has to work long hours. When she was asked if the government overestimates the time it takes to complete a task she said no. There are many people involved with task that are being delegated. It makes it difficult to put together time lines.
Non-expert interview: She frequently underestimates the time it would take to get the job done. She tells her self it will not take long to cook and she gets started late. They end up eating dinner late. Sometimes she ends up late for work because it took her longer to get across town. When asked about the government overestimating the time it would take to complete a task she believes they do. The example she used was the situation in Iraq. The United States overestimated the time it would take to get the troops out of Iraq.
Topic 6: Learned Helplessness:
I have encountered someone that like public event, but does not attend because she is shy. She feels uncomfortable around people she does not know. Instead of attending event more often and trying to get over her shyness, she stopped attending events because it something she can not change. This is an example of learned helplessness. There were thing that she could have done to try and get over her shyness, but she chose to give in to it.
Expert interview: She believes is shyness is her major problem in life then she is lucky. Shyness is a personal defect that can easily to get over. When a person is shy they tend to avoid talking or interacting with people as much as possible. This is to avoid embarrassment or saying something that others may not like. She could practice talking to people. She could also work on building her confidence.
Non-expert: She does not know how someone can get over their shyness. She believes it is something hard to overcome. She does not believe you can change something that is a part of her personality.
Topic 7: Self- serving attributions:
I read an article on a stud done on teachers. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of self-serving and in group-out group biases on teachers’ attributions and evaluation of students’ performances. The children were in middle school and performed an oral essay. There where five judges. Teachers were asked to make attributions of their students’ performances in the competition. The studies findings were teachers of successful students attributed success to internal factors. Teacher of unsuccessful students attributed to external factors. I think that this is a good example of self-serving attribution. Teacher with unsuccessful students were looking for external factors while successful teacher contributed success to internal factors. It is possible in all cases there could have been internal factors for their performance. Unsuccessful students may not have been prepared, where not confident. Successful students could have been confident and well prepared.
Non-expert interview: She believes that teachers use self –serving attribution all the time. She believes it is their way of feeling accomplished. They do not want to believe it is something the student is lacking for their failure. Blaming something going on around the student is easier to except. When it comes to parents she does not believe they use this attribution. She believes when a child false a parent would comfort them not find things to blame it on.
Topic 8: Self handicapping:
Inn high school I joined a debate club for a very short period of time. I never could win an argument. When we were given the topics we were going to debate about I would always tell my friend I had a headache. I was using that as my excuse why I could never win a debate. My head was never hurting and I was doing the bet I could. I think I was too embarrassed to admit the truth. I just was not meant for a debate team even though my friends were good at it. This is an example of self handicapping. I chose not to join another club that I would have been better at I used excuses for my actions.
Expert interview: She deals with people that use self handicapping. She recalled a cases were she dealt with someone used there disability as an excuse. If things were not right it was because of his disability. Something else that could be considered self handicapping is investors claim not to have checked out a stock. They are setting up an excuse just in case there is money lost.
Non-expert interview: She had an uncle that gave up his job because he lost three fingers. It was difficult for him to work but not impossible. Another example she gave me of self handicapping is children tying their shoes. When children stop tying their shoes because they always come lose is giving in.
Topic 9: overconfidence phenomenon:
There is someone that overconfidence phenomenon put them in a bad financial situation. This person plays lottery and hit 2,000 on a scratch off. They became so confident that they could pick the right tickets. Instead of quitting while they where a head they invested what they won plus a thousand more. This ended with them getting behind on their bills. If they had not been so overconfident they would have seen it as a little luck and could have played responsibly.
Expert interview: She said she would not be overconfident in a game of chance. The possibility of losing is greater then the chance of winning. When she was asked weather she believed being overconfident could be dangerous she stated in some circumstances is could be. Being overconfident in your ability could be very dangerous on the street; you do not want to be intimidated by everyone you walk by either. It is just not smart to think you can overpower everyone you encounter.
Non-expert Interview: She feels she would not be overconfident in a game of chance. That is how so many gamblers lose their money. They are confident about something that is basically impossible to win. Only a small handful hits it big. Millions of people waste money on chance games. She does believe it can be dangerous to be overconfident because you could make poor choices.
Topic 10: Confirmation bias:
I saw conformation bias a lot working at a retail store. Customers would buy items and tell me it is the cheapest price they found on that item. I know that if they would shop some where besides the mall they would have know that they were really paying too much for the item. The store I was working at was just the cheapest price in the mall. Even when customers were making returns I would see confirmation bias. They would say t was the wrong color and I could tell it was too small or they spent more than they realized and had to return some items. To me these are all examples of confirmation bias. They wonted be to agree with there perception they where not wonting to hear anything other than that.
Expert interview: She stated that she had not bought anything and convinced her self it was a bargain.
Non-expert interview: She has convinced me of bargains after an impulse buy I could not return. She believes it is something people do in order not to feel like a fool.
Topic 11: Self-fulfilling Prophecy:
I was at the park watching children playing basketball. I saw this tall boy and I assumed the child had to be good at playing ball. He just acted like he was really going to get out there and win the game for his team. He looked like what I though a ball player should look like. E had long arms and legs. He also had big hand so I thought he would have good control of the ball. The child was the opposite of my expectations. I was sure that he was a good player and he was not. It was his behavior the way he was trying to convince the other boys he was a good player.
Expert interview: She meet someone years ago who she thought would be a good business partner. They dressed the part and talked the part. In the end they could not deliver.
Non-expert interview: She does not believe that she has used self-fulfilling prophecy. She tries not to judge a book by its cover. When she meets people or sees people she comes with no expectations.
Topic 12: Low-ball Technique:
I believe that everyone has been a victim of the low-ball technique. I have been looking for a car and have been dealing with a lot car salesmen. This technique is always used. One lot I went on they wonted to get me in a car that day. There were no prices on the cars; he would tell me how much the cars coast. I decided on a car that I thought was reasonable and the manager said he could not sale the car for that price. He said “the price we are asking for is still reasonable for a car like that” They did this on two different vehicles so I decided to take me business some where else. This is a good example of the low ball technique. They seriously believed I would agree to a few more thousand since I agreed on the first price.
Expert interview: She has not purchased items at a higher price because of salesman. She believes from a personal stand point this technique should be outlawed. Realistically it is legal and no way to make it illegal. Consumers have the right to say no. We can choose what we are going to spend our money on.
None-expert interview: She has made a purchase at a higher price because of sales man. She does not regret the purchase because she needed a refrigerator. She would have just saved more money had she shopped around. She believes it is not far to take advantage of the customer. The customer may not know the true value of an item. She believes it is more honest ways to do business.
Topic 13: Self affirmation theory:
An example of self affirmation theory can be seen on the show Murray Povik. I watched a few episodes on men denying they are the father. Some of the men were being talked down to for denying their child. This is the treat the men were being faced with. In response some of the men talked about how they take care of there other kids. I think this response is they way they protect them self from the negativity. They try to focus on what positive they are doing instead of the undesirable behavior everyone else is downing them about.
Expert interview: She is confident in who she is as a person. She can not recall using thins theory.
Non-expert interview: She believes she has used this theory. When she was separated from her husband she told people things to make her look better. She made up for her marriage shot comings with personal accomplishments in the marriage.
Topic 14: Empathy:
I have been in a situation where I felt empathy for someone else. My nephew had a mentor. He has become like a member of the family. His x-wife and daughter were in a car accident. Her mother did not make sure her daughter was buckled in. The child was thrown out of the vehicle and suffered severe injuries. His hurt turned to rage after he found out his child was not wearing a seat belt. I put my self in his shoes. I am a mother and I can understand his reaction to his child being in danger. The reason I feel this is an example of empathy my child has not been in an accident. What I felt came from thinking about the pain he is feeling. I though about what emotions and reactions I would have had if I was him.
Expert interview: She had felt empathy for others. She had an Aunt that passed away after a battle with cancer. She was suffering from her own grieve. She also experienced empathy for her children. How they must feel.
Non-expert interview: She has felt a lot of empathy for others in her life time. She grew up working in cotton fields. She saw older people picking cotton that could barely get around picking cotton. She felt empathy for the everyday. She could she her self and old women having to pick cotton in all that pain. The most empathy she can recall feeling in her life was for her parents. Her brother was killed. She was able to feel the pain her mother felt when she put her self in her mother shoes.
Topic 15: Aggression:
I think we are all guilty of having aggression at sometime in are life. I can remember a few years ago when I hurt someone’s feeling on purpose. Do to the fact I did it on purpose makes it aggression. It was only verbal and never got physical. I got tired of a family member lying to everyone about why they had to deal with child protective services. This person told others that it was something that happened to someone else’s child her kids witnessed. At a family gathering this person was talking about the situation. I walked up to her and told the truth bout her case in front of everyone. I attentionily said it in front of everyone. I wonted to hurt her feeling. I wonted her to be ashamed of her self. I had no other motive for telling every one but aggression. I was wrong for the why I handled things there was a better way, but I could not see passed aggression.
Expert interview: She recalls having a few fights when she was younger. She has witnessed a lot of aggression when she was a marriage counselor. She believes that aggression is a major problem in the United States. It is causing problems locally and globally. The U.S rate of violence is steady rising. People feel like they no longer have to control their aggression.
Non-expert interview: She has been aggressive and witnessed aggression. In her household her and her siblings would say things to hurt each others feeling when they got angry. She feels aggression is like a disease spreading. People don’t seem to be satisfied until they hurt someone’s feelings. She believes the schools are full of aggression and the children thrive off pain.
Topic 16: Compliance:
Someone I use to work with fired three managers. The district manager felt they had to go because there stores were losing profit. He agreed that they need to be fired instead of standing up for them. He fired the mangers in compliance with what the distract manger wonted. This situation is an example of compliance. He did not agree with the firing and never told the district manger. He knew that sales would be low because that store had more competition do to new store openings. He knew the compotators had taken some of there business. He still complied with what someone else wonted.
Expert interview: As not publically gone along with something she did not agree with.
Non-expert interview: As a child she has gone along with compliance. She felt she had no choice because it was the way off life. She had to tell people how much she enjoyed working their fields. Knowing she did not like it.
Topic 17: Reactance:
I see reactance often whit children I am around. I have a five year old daughter and sometimes I witness reactance with her. Sometimes she does not want to go to bed. She will cry about not getting enough time to play. When she gets in the bed she will start playing instead of going to sleep. This is an example of reactance because she feels like her play time is being taken away from her. She reacts by getting in the bed and playing more.
Expert interview: She can remember using reactance when she bought her first car. She was not allowed to have more then one passenger. She picked up more then one passenger and went to her house. Her mother asked her about it and she got in trouble. She believes that reactance is common in teenagers. They are at a rebellious pint in there lives. She believes reactance accurse more when the no longer wont to be viewed as a child.
Non-expert interview: She was not allowed to use hot combs or have a perm. So she took some household bleach and dyed her hair. She believes that reactance today is common in teenagers. She believes they recant against their parents and the rest of society.
Topic 18: Social loafing:
My brother uses social loafing when it comes to cleaning. Ever spring we had to do spring cleaning growing up. In my family this is a major deal. He always worked slower than the rest of us. We are working fast trying to get the job done and he is working slower. When it came to cleaning out our own closets and going through are own clothing he was always done before us. This is an example of social loafing. He would work twice as fast when working alone. When working in a group; he became he slowest person.
Expert interview: She believes he is guilty of social loafing. She has been guilty of social loafing as well. She was working at Burger king when she was in college. She worked slower when they were fully staffed and faster when it was two of them.
Non-expert interview: She believes he is guilty of social loafing. She can not recall using social loafing. Growing up they all had a far share of the work load.
Topic 19: Mirror-image perceptions:
I read an article on how people relate to own another. It talked about how Mirror- image perceptions can destroy marriages. I spoke with a friend that was going through a divorce who believes this to be true. She claims that arguments got to a point where there was no compromising. Both felt they were in the right. They no longer could find ways to reach an agreement. What they perceived to be the negativity of the other person is at least partly due to mirror image perceptions. She viewed him as always being wrong and she had all the right answers. He held the same view except for he was the one right and had all the answers.
Expert interview: She does not believe that she has used this perception. She does not feel that the united states feel they are more moral then other countries.
None-expert interview: She has had confutations where she felt see was more moral then the next person. There was a woman she felt was the nastiest person she ever meets. No one could do any right in her eyes. She argued with this woman and left the argument feeling more moral then the other women. When asked about the united state feeling more moral then other countries she did believe it. She believes the moral level is why we ware in the mess we are in today. She believes the United States could learn something from other countries.
Topic 20: Mediation:
My mother was the mediator of our house. There were many times we could not work things out and went to her. This example of mediation could not have been resolved with out my mother. Brother and his friend broke a window playing baseball. They both felt they were not responsible. Neither one felt responsible to pay the damage. She set with them one on one and then talked with them together. When she talked with them to gather is the example of mediation. She bought the two parties involved tighter to come to an agreement. In the end they both cut grass to cover equal share for the window.
Expert interview: She has not used mediation herself. She knows others who have had mediation and had good results. She believes mediation is a great way to solve problems. We can get wrapped up in conflict and not be able to see the solution ourselves. She states that mediation is commonly used in divorce preceding. It allows for a neutral party to come to a median they both can agree on.
Non-expert interview: she has not used mediation herself. She knows other people who have used mediation. She believes mediation is okay if you can not handle the problem yourself. Sometime a person can see clearer when they are not involved.
Topic 21: Bargaining:
(NS) was being sued over a car accident. She could not afforded what they where asking for Instead of going to court and having to pay out even more money if she loses she decided to bargain. (NS) experience is an example of barging. She sate down with them seeking agreement they both could agree on. She was able to negotiate a price and time from for payment with them. This is a good example of barging. They did not take the first thing she offered, she had to be reasonable in meeting there demands. She was seeking an agreement to the conflict over the accident.
Expert interview: She said she has been fortunate enough not to be in a situation were she had to bargain.
Non-expert interview: She has no had to bargain anything other then shopping.
Topic 22: Superordinate goal:
(SD) and (AD) were living in run down apartments. They both wonted to move to a better apartment. They decide to find an apartment and move in tighter and split the bills. This is an example of superordinate goals. They were living separate and shared a goal. In order for both of them to reach there goal they had to move in together. Moving in together takes cooperation. Both had to agree on what they were keeping and getting ride of. They also had to make house rules and share space.
Expert interview: She had used subordinate goals when she got her first apartment. She had a roommate and it did not work out as well as expected. They had a goal of not being in debt so they stayed until the lease was up.
Non-expert interview: she used subordinate goal when her husband got out of the military. She moved in with her sister. Her sister needed the money and they needed a place to stay.
Topic 23: Misinformation effect:
Unsolved mysteries is a show that deals with unexplainable events and unsolved cases. There was a case involving robbery in convenient store. The man came in with a gun and took money out of the register. There were other people in the store on the way out he took other items. People gave conflicting descriptions when the cops got there. What makes this a misinformation effect is what happened after the robbery. Clerk gave one story on seen involved seeing a knife in the pocket of the assailant. They showed a lobby scene where the witnesses where talking. The clerk then saw a hammer in the pocket of the assailant which was the same thing the pregnant women saw.
Expert interview: She has not witnessed this type of behavior before. She believes if a person is confused or shocked it is possible they may change their story after receiving information. She does not believe it is common to for people to receive information and just change their story when they are confident it what they witnessed.
Non-expert interview: She has not witnessed this effect. She does not believe it is normal to change your story because of what someone else saw. You should not believe someone over your own eyes.
Topic 24: Adaptation-level Phenomenon:
This example of adaptation-level phenomenon involves money. (KT) is a person that complained about never having enough money. What makes this a good example is what he did when he got a raise. He was happy in the beginning having more money to spend. It seemed to be less exiting after receiving a few paychecks. (KT) then was in the same situation complaining about needing more money. Having more income became normal and spending more created more bills as well.
Topic 25: Social Comparison:
This example of social comparison is of abilities. Going to the gym to work out there is a lot of comparing of abilities. Two older males where lifting weights. The more one lifted the more the other tried to lift. In this situation he was comparing his ability to the first male. He assumed he was able to lift what the other male was able to lift.
Expert interview: She has witnessed social comparison in adolescents that she deals with. Some of the adolescents she deals with compare themselves to stars. The social information they receive is used to define the self and establish norms and boundaries.
Non-expert interview: She has witnessed social comparison. It was always present when they worked on the fields. If someone picked two sack full one day. Others tried to do the same the next day. If someone else did it they felt they could do the same. It was not as easy as the next person made it look.