The effect of social liberalism
The author does a commendable job in revealing the effect of New Deal liberalism on Americans. New Deal liberalism aimed to ensure that the United States is made a fairly playing ground for people of different races in their social and economic pursuits. Schikler (2013) conquers that New Deal liberalism was meant to ensure that African Americans secured equal rights in the 1930s onwards.
It is true that between 1916 and 1930, many African Americans moved from the Southern States to the Northern States in pursuit of better lives. It is also true that many African-Americans moved to Detroit city to work in the automobile, defense, and steel industries as attested by Halpern (2006).
Racial discrimination in United States
The author is apt in discussing how racial identity and racial identity lurked beneath the seeming unity brought about by New Deal liberalism. It is true that New Deal liberalism did not eliminate racial segregation in the United States. There was still racial discrimination in employment and access to housing years after New Deal liberalism came into place as confirmed by Weir (2005).
The author aptly discusses discrimination that African Americans faced in the North. African Americans were discriminated against with regard to access to public services and housing. It is true that in the North, most African Americans were only accorded low paying jobs that required little skill and most of them were at an entry level. In some instances, desperate Caucasians snatched the African American jobs. This is attested by Freedman and Jones (2008).
Secondary sources confirm that. As a result, there was an emergence of white advocacy groups that campaigned against African Americans tinvasiont of their neighborhoods stating that the latter were affecting their access to public housing and disorienting their social fabric. Federal programs revealed racism; this is because most local authorities were run by Caucasian community leaders who brought with them their racial biases. This is confirmed by Jaynes (2005).
Freedman, Eric, and Stephen A. Jones. 2008. African Americans in Congress: a documentary history. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.
Jaynes, Gerald David. 2005. Encyclopedia of African American society. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
Halpern, Monica. 2006. Moving north: African Americans and the Great Migration, 1915-1930. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic.
Sugrue, T. J. 1995. “Crabgrass-Roots Politics: Race, Rights, and the Reaction against Liberalism in the Urban North, 1940-1964”. The Journal of American History. 82 (2): 551.
Schickler E. 2013. “New deal liberalism and racial liberalism in the mass public, 1937-1968”. Perspectives on Politics. 11 (1): 75-98.
Weir, M. 2005. “States, Race, and the Decline of New Deal Liberalism”. STUDIES IN AMERICAN POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT. 19 (2): 157-172.